May 9 1979: Evanston (anonymous)
November 15, 1979: Chicago (anonymous)
June 10, 1980: Lake Forest (FC = Freedom Club)
June 1980: Task force assembled, given UNABOM designation
October 8, 1981: Salt Lake City (FC)
May 5, 1982: Nashville Tennesee (FC)
July 2, 1982: Berkeley Cal (anonymous)
May 15, 1985: Auburn Washington (FC)
November 15, 1985: Ann Arbor Michigan (FC)
December 11, 1985: Sacramento Cal (FC)
Februar 20, 1987: Salt Lake City Cal (FC)
Unabomber sletch is made
1987 Entire task force UTF is set up: to catch the "most dangerous man in America".
Unabomber attacks cease for six years
June 22, 1993: Tiburon (anonymous)
June 24, 1993: New Haven Connecticut (anonymous)
June 1993: The Unabomber communicates for the first time
in a letter
A federal task force is set up.
December 10, 1994: North Caldwick New Jersey (anonymous)
April 24, 1995: Sacramento Cal (anonymous)
June 24, 1995: Manifesto mailed from Sam Francisco Cal.
September 19, 1995: The Washington Post and New Yory jointly publish the Unabomber´s 35.000-word Manifesto INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY AND ITS FUTURE by FC, following the serial bomber´s peromise to stop his attacks.
February 1996: David Kaczynski, after reading the manifesto and
April 3, 1996 T.K. is taken into custody by Federal agents.
April 5, 1996: T.K. is charged with possessing bomb components and held
June 18, 1996 Sacramento federal grand jury returns a 10-count
October 1, 1996 New Jersey indictment for Thomas J. Mosser´s death
November 12, 1997: Jury selection begins.
December 22, 1997: Jury selections ends. U.S. District Judge Garland
Burell Jr. meets with Kaczynski and his defense lawyers to discuss an
attorney-client issue, later revealed to be a dispute over
Januar 5, 1998: Scheduled opening statements are delayed when Kaczynski renews his request to fire his lawyers and hire an attorney who will mount a defense based on his political views. The request is denied.
Januar 8, 1998: Opening statements are again delayed when Kaczynski asks to serve as his own attorney. Burell orders a competency evaluation for Kaczynski.
Januar 14, 1998: Defense files motion to disclose information about T.K.´s secret shacks
Januar 17, 1998: Bureau of Prisons psychiatrist Dr. Sally Johnson reports
Januar 22, 1998: Court case is closed bevor began. Burell rejects T.K.´s
May 4, 1998: Kaczynski is given an airtight sentence and ordered to pay $15.026.000 to his victims
August 17, 2001: Request for Wiederaufnahme des Verfahres denied.
This is a message from the terrorist group FC.
We blew up Thomas Mosser last December because he was a Burston-Marsteller executive. Among other misdeeds, Burston-Marsteller helped Exxon clean up its public image after the Exxon Valdez incident. But we attacked Burston-Marsteller less for its specific misdeeds than on general principles. Burston-Marsteller is about the biggest organization in the public relations field.
This means that its business is the development of techniques for
Some news reports have made the misleading statement that we have been
attacking universities or scholars. We have nothing against universities
or scholars as such. All the university people whom we have attacked have
been specialists in technical fields. (We consider certain areas of applied
psychology, such as behavior modification, to be technical fields.) We
would not want anyone to think that we have any desire to hurt professors
who study archaeology, history, literature or harmless stuff like that.
The people we are
In our previous letter to you we called ourselves anarchists.
Why do we announce our goals only now, though we made our first bomb some seventeen years ago? Our early bombs were too ineffectual to attract much public attention or give encouragement to those who hate the system. We found by experience that gunpowder bombs, if small enough to be carried inconspicuously, were too feeble to do much damage, so we took a couple of years off to do some experimenting. We learned how to make pipe bombs that were powerful enough, and we used these in a couple of successful bombings as well as in some unsuccessful ones.
(Passage deleted at the request of the FBI.)
Since we no longer have to confine the explosive in a pipe, we are now free of limitations on the size and shape of our bombs. We are pretty sure we know how to increase the power of our explosives and reduce the number of batteries needed to set them off. And, as we've just indicated, we think we now have more effective fragmentation material. So we expect to be able to pack deadly bombs into ever smaller, lighter and more harmless looking packages. On the other hand, we believe we will be able to make bombs much bigger than any we've made before. With a briefcase-full or a suitcase-full of explosives we should be able to blow out the walls of substantial buildings.
Clearly we are in a position to do a great deal of damage. And it doesn't appear that the FBI is going to catch us any time soon. The FBI is a joke.
The people who are pushing all this growth and progress garbage deserve to be severely punished. But our goal is less to punish them than to propagate ideas. Anyhow we are getting tired of making bombs. It's no fun having to spend all your evenings and weekends preparing dangerous mixures, filing trigger mechanisms out of scraps of metal or searching the sierras for a place isolated enough to test a bomb. So we offer a bargain.
We have a long article, between 29,000 and 37,000 words, that we want
to have published. If you can get it published according to our requirements
The article will not explicitly advocate violence. There will be an
How do you know that we will keep our promise to desist from terrorism if our conditions are met? It will be to our advantage to keep our promise. We want to win acceptance for certain ideas. If we break our promise people will lose respect for us and so will be less likely to accept the ideas.
Our offer to desist from terrorism is subject to three qualifications.
First: Our promise to desist will not take effect until all parts of our
article or book have appeared in print. Second: If the authorities should
succeed in tracking us down and an attempt is made to arrest any of us,
or even to question us in connection with the bombings, we reserve the
right to use violence. Third: We distinguish between terrorism and sabotage.
By terrorism we mean actions motivated by
It may be just as well that failure of our early bombs discouraged us from making any public statements at that time. We were very young then and our thinking was crude. Over the years we have given as much attention to the development of our ideas as to the development of bombs, and we now have something serious to say. And we feel that just now the time is ripe for the presentation of anti-industrial ideas.
Please see to it that the answer to our offer is well publicized in the media so that we won't miss it. Be sure to tell us where and how our material will be published and how long it will take to appear in print once we have sent in the manuscript. If the answer is satisfactory, we will finish typing the manuscript and send it to you. If the answer is unsatisfactory, we will start building our next bomb.
We encourage you to print this letter.
(Passage deleted at request of the FBI.)
The FBI called the case UNABOM, after the first targets -- University
researchers and Airline executives. The bombings targeted people connected
On May 15, 1995, FBI Special Agent William L. Tafoya asked for help,
The purpose for submitting the information on the Internet is twofold.
Once the FBI developed a Web site, it featured the Unabom investigation prominently. On its major investigations page, it continues to ask the public for information.
Manifesto strikes a chord "FC," as the bomber called himself,
went public in September 1995.
Ted Kaczynski, accused in federal court of being the Unabomber, initially
The Unabomber's manifesto offers the 'Net one of the commodities it values most highly: a political and philosophical argument. The particulars of the case are debated in the newsgroup alt.fan.unabomber-- "fan" in the loosest sense of the word, as alt.fan newsgroups exist formany famous and infamous people. While many posts on alt.fan.unabomber endorse his philosophy, nearly all denounce his methods.
There's the usual ration of speculation in alt.fan.unabomber; complaints
Even for the most wired of the Internet cognoscenti, dropping out and
The book "The True Believer," by Eric Hoffer, raised the possibility that the Unabomber may have used the UC Davis library for researching and writing at least part of his 35,000-word anarchistic manifesto.
Last week the FBI arrested Theodore Kaczynski, 53, a Harvard graduate and former Berkeley math professor who has been living in a tiny Montana cabin since the 1970s. Agents found one live bomb in the cabin.
Kaczynski is being held on a single charge of possessing bomb components, but federal sources have said they are certain he is the Unabomber and more charges will follow.
Meanwhile, the search of Kaczynski's cabin continued to yield new
Federal sources told The Bee that agents have found a list of categories of individuals who may have been future bombing targets -- including executives and social climbers. Specific individuals were not named.
"He obviously did not plan to keep his promise (to cease bombing),"
The Washington Post last year printed the manuscript and the bombings
ceased. The manifesto is a wordy, academic-sounding essay with footnotes
UC sources said that someone reading Hoffer's book at UC Davis in February noticed it was marked -- not an uncommon condition for university library books. But the marked sections seemed familiar to the library patron, who then checked it against the Unabomber's manifesto and found similarities.
"It raises the possibility that he was not only a bomber, but a
Federal sources said they have no firm evidence that the Unabomber
UC Davis library records do not show who checked out a book once it is returned. Nor would someone need to check out the book to read it in the library.
Hoffer, a San Francisco longshoreman-turned-philosopher and essayist
who died in 1983, was a cultural icon of Bay Area intellectuals when Kaczynski
was teaching at Berkeley in the late 1960s. Like the Unabomber, Hoffer
Hoffer's book and the Unabomber's manifesto parallel each other in
Hoffer sometimes led an itinerant life working as a migrant worker in California, and he held library cards in many towns.
Kaczynski also appears to have been an itinerant at times, and FBI agents have been checking libraries where he may have visited, including at UC Berkeley.
The marked copy of Hoffer's book was turned over to the FBI by UC Davis. Investigators have previously said that Hoffer's book was one of those they have been studying for Unabomber clues.
Federal sources have said they are amassing evidence that Kaczynski, who lived like a hermit in Montana, traveled to Northern California and stayed for weeks or months at time.
Meanwhile, the Sacramento County District Attorney's Office today will convene a "task force" of local agencies interested in prosecuting Kaczynski.
Deputy District Attorney John O'Mara said that Sacramento prosecutors are not pushing to take over the case from federal authorities. He said that officials of the Sacramento police and county sheriff's departments have been invited to the meeting.
"I suspect we may never have the opportunity to do this prosecution,"
Two of the three killings from the bombs were in Sacramento-- businessman
Hugh Scrutton in 1985 and lobbyist Murray in 1995. O'Mara said that if
the Sacramento prosecutors get the opportunity, they will seek the death
penalty against Kaczynski.
The move by the Sacramento DA's office could further complicate the
Federal prosecutors from New Jersey, Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Montana, Utah and Sacramento, including U.S. Attorney Charles Stevens, met but reached no decision on where Kaczynski should be prosecuted.
Stevens could not be reached for comment Tuesday.
While the federal prosecutors have been talking about how to proceed next, Gov. Pete Wilson has called for local prosecutors to take over the case.
Wilson's press secretary, Sean Walsh, said, "The governor believes the federal government can't give him (Kaczynski) the maximum penalty and California can."
One of the arguments that state prosecutors can make is that California's death penalty law is relatively settled in the appellate courts, and three executions have been carried out in recent years.
By contrast, the federal death penalty law was enacted in 1994, and no one has been executed under it.
EIDESSTATTLICHE ERKLÄRUNG DES ASSISTANT SPECIAL AGENT IN CHARGE
TERRY D. TURCHIE
U.S. DISTRICT VON MONTANA
1. Ich, Terry D. Turchie, nachdem ich entsprechend den Gesetzen eingeschworen wurde, sage unter Eid aus und bekenne, daß ich ein Spezialagent des Bundesbüros für Nachforschung (Federal Bureau of Investigation) (FBI) bin und als solcher seit 1976 beschäftigt. Ich habe ein Studium an der California State University in Sacramento im Jahre 1972 abgeschlossen, mit einem Abschluß (BA Degree) in Strafrecht und an der Southern Illinois University im Jahre 1976 mit einem Abschluß (MS Degree) in Politikwissenschaften. Von 1976 bis 1988, war ich damit betraut, eine ganze Vielzahl von Kriminalsachen auf Bundesebene zu untersuchen, sowohl im Büro des FBI in Portland, als auch im New Yorker Büro. 1988, wurde ich der Abteilung des FBI in San Francisco als aufsichtsführender Spezialagent (Supervisory Special Agent = SSA) einer Geheimdiensteinheit zur Abwehr ausländischer Nachrichtendienste zugeordnet, wo ich eine Anzahl von sehr heiklen Untersuchungen ausländischer Abwehrdienste beaufsichtigte. 1994, wurde ich wiederum wiederum als SSA für die UNABOM Task Force (UTF; Spezialeinheit zur Aufklärung der Ereignisse um den UNABOMBER) in San Francisco beauftragt. Meine
Verantwortungsbereiche schlossen die Koordinierung der Arbeit von den drei Agenturen, die von der UTF repräsentiert werden(FBI, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and Postal Inspection Service Büro für Alkohol, Tabak und Schusswaffen; Postprüfungsdienst); die Entwicklung einer integrierten Untersuchungs-strategie zur Sicherstellung der vollständigen Untersuchung aller UNABOM Ereignisse und die Identifikation potentieller Verdächtiger; und die Beaufsichtigung des Agenten- und unterstützenden Personals, das der UNABOM Einheit zugeordnet waren.
2. Im Jahre 1995, wurde ich zum Assistant Special Agent in Charge (ASAC = aufsichtsführender Spezialagent) für das Nationale San Francisco Spionagedienst Programm benannt, um weiterhin Übersicht über die Leitung der UNABOM Untersuchung zu haben. Als Resultat einer wachsenden Anstrengung in den Nachforschungen, wurde ich im Juli 1995 zum ASAC der UNABOM Division des Büros benannt. In dieser Position koordiniere ich alle Maßnahmen der UNABOM Untersuchung in den Vereinigten Staaten.
3. Diese Erklärung vertraut ebenso auf die Untersuchungen und Schlußfolgerungen von Thomas J. Mohnal, der gegenwärtig als ein leitender Spezialagent (SSA) angestellt ist. SSA Mohnal graduierte 1979 am Lycoming College in Williamsport, Pennsylvania mit einem Abschluß (BA degree) in Strafrecht und war Untersuchender in der Sprengstoffeinheit des FBI Labors in Washington, D.C. 1982, war SSA Mohnal als Techniker der Physikwissenschaft im FBI Labor angestellt. In jenem Jahr schloß er erfolgreich die "Bombing Crime Scene School" (Schule über Tatorte von Bombenattentaten)des FBI an der FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia, ab. Er graduierte auch von der Basic Demolition and Improvised Explosive Device School (Schule der Einfachen und Imrovisierter Zerstörungs- und Sprengmittel) am United States Naval Explosive Ordinance Disposal Technology Center (Technologie-Zentrum für Maritime Gesetzliche Sprengstoffentsorgung der Vereinigten Staaten)in Indian Head, Maryland. 1985 wurde er als Spezialagent des FBI eingestellt und erhielt das Grundlagentraining eines Spezialagenten. SSA Mohnal wurde dann bis 1989 Untersuchungsagent der Las Vegas Division des FBI, wonach er dann zur Sprengstoffeinheit am FBI Labor zurückgeordert wurde. 1989 erhielt er ergänzende Ausbildung von Laborspezialisten des FBI-Labors. Er wurde über die Verfahren und Ausrüstung unterrichtet, die in der Sprengstoff-abteilung für Laboruntersuchungen verwendet wird. In Ergänzung dazu wurde er mit der Referenzliteratur vertraut, die sich mit Sprengstoffen, Sprengzubehör und Sprengkörpern beschäftigt.
4. Im Jahre 1990, graduierte SSA Mohnal an der United States Army's Hazardous Devices School (Schule für gefährliche Geräte und Mittel bei der Armee der Vereinigten Staaten) in Huntsville, Alabama. Die Schule ist das Zentrum allen Trainings für "sicherheitwirksame" Techniken für zivile Exekutivorgane. Die Schule bietet auch detaillierte Unterweisung bezüglich anderer Gebiete die explosive Materialien betreffen, einschließlich die Erkennung kommerzieller und militärischer Sprengstoffe, improvisierter explosiver Mittel, Bombenbestandteile und Zündsysteme. Seit 1989, hat SSA Mohnal tausende von Untersuchungen von Beweisstücken tatsächlicher Bombenanschläge und zahlreiche Untersuchungen einheimischer oder internationaler Schauplätze von Bombenattentaten durchgeführt oder dabei assistiert. SSA Mohnal nimmt fortgesetzt an Seminaren und formalen Trainingsprogrammen über Sprengstoffe und Pyrotechnik teil und besucht Sprengstoffherstellende Einrichtungen, um die kommerzielle und militärische Sprengstoffproduktion und den Verpackungsbetrieb zu beobachten. Er hat an der FBI Academy und anderen Akademien der Exekutivorgane und an Bombentechnikerschulen des ganzen Landes Vorträge gegeben über Tatortuntersuchungen und Sprengstofftechnologie. Er hat vor Gericht ausgesagt und sich als qualifizierter Zeuge und Experte im Bereich der Sprengstoffe und Sprengkörper erwiesen.
5. Die Fakten, die in dieser eidesstattlichen Erklärung (Zustellungsurkunde) vorgezeigt werden, basieren auf persönlicher Beobachtung und Untersuchung des Vereidigten, oder den offiziellen Berichten anderer Mitglieder der Sondergruppe UNABOM der Strafverfolgungsorgane. Diese Berichte schließen folgendes ein: Berichte von Interviews, Laborberichte (einschließlich Laboranalysen, -diagramme und -tabellen, Expertenberichte, Zeugenaussagen, Polizeiliche Vorfallberichte und Fotografien von Tatorten.
Titel (Rechtstitel, Paragraph)
Titel 18, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 842 (Illegale Herstellung eines Sprengkörpers).
Titel 18, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 875 (Erpresserische zwischenstaatliche Kommunikation).
Titel 18, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 876 (Versendung von Nachrichten drohenden Inhalts).
Titel 18, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 844(d) (Besitz und Entgegennahme von Sprengstoffen im zwischenstaatlichen Handel mit der Absicht zu töten, zu verletzen, oder einzuschüchtern).
Titel 18, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 844(i) (Beschädigung oder Zerstörung von Eigentum im zwischenstaatlichen Handel).
Titel 18, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 924(c) (Verwendung eines zerstörerischen Hilfsmittels während eines Gewaltverbrechens).
Titel 18, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 1716 (Versendung von Artikeln die Verletzungen hervorrufen).
Titel 26, Gesetz der Vereinigten Staaten, Abschnitt 5861 (Entgegennahme, Besitz, Herstellung oder Transport unangemeldeter zerstörerischer Mittel).
7. Diese Erklärung wird vorgelegt, um einen Durchsuchungsbefehl für die Räumlichkeiten die zu Theodore John Kaczynski gehören, von ihm besessen werden und/oder unter seiner Kontrolle stehen, beschrieben als eine Ein-Raum-Hütte und die Nebengelasse, einschließlich eines Kellers, gelegen eine viertel Meile östlich von der Stemple Pass Road, ungefähr vier Meilen südöstlich von Lincoln, Montana, und im weiteren beschrieben in Anlage A dieser Erklärung und hiermit als Referenz eingebunden.
8. Die Untersuchung dieses Falles betrifft eine Serie von Bombenattentaten, die in den Vereinigten Staaten stattfanden, angefangen mit einem Bombenattentat am 25. Mai 1978, und sich fortsetzten bis zu dem letzten bekannten Attentat am 24.April 1995. Bei jedem dieser Bombenattentate wurde ein selbstgefertigter Sprengstoff und /oder Brandsatz (in diesem Bericht im folgenden als ein Sprengkörper bezeichnet)verwendet. Während des Verlaufs dieser Untersuchung identifizierten Mitglieder der UNABOM Sondergruppe, als auch Experten des Bereichs Bombenkonstruktion und Spurensicherung bedeutende Ähnlichkeiten aller dieser Attentate, und sind zu der Schlußfolgerung gekommen, daß alle diese Attentate von der selben Person oder Gruppe von Personen, die zusammenarbeiteten, begangen wurde. Ähnlichkeiten wurden bemerkt: bezüglich der Art der Konstruktion der Sprengkörper, bezüglich der Methoden des Transports der Zerstörungsmittel zu den Opfern, bezüglich der Ereignisorte und betreffend persönlicher Identifikationszeichen, die in mehreren der Sprengkörper angebracht waren.
9. Jedes der Zerstörungsmittel war seiner Konstruktion nach passiv
(d.h. es erforderte eine initiierende Handlung durch das Opfer), die hauptsächlich
verwendeten explosiven Stoffe waren ähnlich (d. h. Rauchloses Pulver*,
Kaliumchlorid, Ammoniumnitrat, Natriumchlorid (Kochsalz) und Aluminiumpulver/flocken),
die Zündsysteme waren ähnlich (d.h. die Energiequellen, Verdrahtung,
Schalter, und Zünder) und die Einkleidung für die Sprengkörper
waren aus ähnlichen Materialien gebaut (d.h. Holz-, Papp- oder Plastikkisten).
10. Die Sprengkörper wurden zum Opfer gebracht durch entweder physische Überbringung (Abstellen und Hinterlassen an bestimmten Orten) oder durch den Postdienst der Vereinigten Staaten. Die Sprengkörper, die hinterlassen wurden, waren in frei zugänglichen Bereichen platziert worden, mit dem Versuch ein potentielles Opfer anzuziehen und zu täuschen. Die mit der Post versendeten Sprengkörper hatten ähnliche Verpackung und ähnliche Täuschungsbemühungen mit Falschangabe der Rücksendeadresse; gewöhnlich wurde eine fiktive Person oder Adresse angegeben.
11. Die Orte der Zwischenfälle sind ähnlich insofern, als die Sprengkörper nach oder aus Chicago, Salt Lake City, Sacramento oder die San Francisco Metropolitan Bay Area verschickt, oder dort platziert wurden. Sprengkörper, die in Connecticut, New Jersey und Tennessee explodierten, wurden von Sacramento, San Francisco bzw. Provo, Utah, gesendet. Ein Sprengkörper, der in Washington aufgefunden wurde, war von Oakland, California geschickt worden.
12. Acht (8) der 16 Sprengkörper trugen eine persönliche Identifikations-marke, die aus den Initialen "FC" bestand, welche sich entweder in den Sprengkörpern befanden, oder in Briefen, die an die New York Times geschickt worden waren, und welche die Herstellung der Sprengkörper begleiteten.
13. In einem Brief, der von der New York Times am 24.April 1995 empfangen
wurde, behauptete der Autor (von dem wir aufgrund seiner Benutzung eines
Passworts und einer forensischen Analyse glaubten, daß er auch andere
UNABOM Dokumente verfaßt hat) seine Täterschaft und verlangte
deren Anerkennung durch mehrere Sprengkörper, -einschließlich
der Bombe die Thomas Mosser am 10.Dezember 1994 tötete -, durch die
verschiedene, an Universitäten angestellte Personen getötet
wurden, die "Spezialisten in technischen Bereichen" waren.
CHRONOLOGIE DER EREIGNISSE
14. Das folgende ist eine chronologische Beschreibung der sechzehn Bombenzwischenfälle, die einen Überblick der Ereignisse vor und nach der Entdeckung jedes Sprengkörpers einschließen, eine physische Beschreibung jedes Sprengkörpers und eine Liste der Komponenten jedes der Sprengkörper, die an den Schauplätzen geborgen wurden.
26. Mai 1978 - Chicago, Illinois
15. Dieser Sprengkörper war in einem Paket enthalten, das in braunes Papier eingeschlagen war und wurde in der Parkanlage des Gebäudes der Ingenieurwissenschaften der University of Illinois, Chicago Campus entdeckt; es befand sich dort unbeaufsichtigt. Das Paket war adressiert an Professor E.J. Smith vom Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI = Polytechnisches Institut Renssela), Troy, New York, und hatte eine Rücksendeadresse von Professor Buckley Crist von der Northwestern University (NWU), Evanston, Illinois. Die Frau, die das Paket entdeckte, kontaktierte die Northwestern University und traf Arrangements, um das Paket zu Crist zurückzusenden. Beim Empfang des Pakets wurde Crist mißtrauisch, da er kein derartiges Paket versendet hatte. Er kontaktierte dann die Abteilung für öffentliche Sicherheit der NWU. Als das Paket von einem Offizier für Öffentliche Sicherheit an der NWU geöffnet wurde, explodierte es, wobei nur geringfügige Verletzungen entstanden. Die Verletzungen des Offiziers waren nur geringfügig, da die Hauptkraft der Explosion nach der Seite gerichtet war, nicht zum Offizier. Aber eine Analyse der Komponenten des Sprengkörpers durch das Labor des Büros für Alkohol, Tabak und Schußwaffen (Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) fand heraus, daß dieser Sprengkörper in der Lage war, ernsthafte Verletzung oder Tod von Personen in unmittelbarer Nähe der Explosion zu verursachen. Professor E.J. Smith, der eigentlich das Paket erhalten sollte, wurde von Leuten des ATF gefunden und befragt. Er sagte, wie auch Professor Crist, daß er nichts über das Paket wisse und auch keine Information darüber habe, wer die Bombe gebaut haben könnte.
16. Eine Analyse der Bestandteile des Sprengkörpers durch das ATF Labor zeigte, daß es aus einem galvanisierten Rohr gebaut worden war. Es hatte einen Durchmesser von einem Inch und war ungefähr neun Inch lang. An einem Ende war es mit einem hölzernen Stöpsel verschlossen. Die explosive Ladung bestand aus zwei Arten Rauchlosen Pulvers und Streichholzköpfen. Das Rohr, das die Hauptladung enthielt, war, gemeinsam mit dem improvisierten mechanischen Abzugsmechanismus, der aus einem Nagel bestand, welcher durch mehrere Gummibänder in Spannung gehalten, in einer selbstgebauten Holzkiste untergebracht. Der Deckel der Kiste sollte die Spannung auf den Schlagbolzen entladen und so den Nagel dazu bringen auf die Streichholzköpfe zu schlagen, um auf diese Weise das Rauchlose Pulver zu entzünden.
17. Die folgenden Bestandteile wurden vom Explosionsort geborgen:
- Überreste eines Rohrs von 1"
9. Mai 1979 - Evanston, Illinois
18. Dieser Sprengkörper, der in einer kleinen Zigarrenschachtel der Marke "Phillies" verborgen war, wurde auf einem Tisch in Raum 2424 des Technischen Gebäudes der Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, gefunden. Raum 2424 wurde als ein Bereich beschriebenen, der zur Zeit der Explosion primär von fortgeschritteneren Studenten, dem Lehrkörper und Gelehrten die zu Besuch kamen, genutzt wurde, und normalerweise mit zwei Lehrassistenten besetzt war. Der Sprengkörper wurde von zwei Studenten am morgen des 9.Mai 1979 bemerkt, aber es war bereits Nachmittag, als John Harris, ein Mitglied der Abteilung für Bauingenieurswesen, die Kiste öffnete. Infolge des Öffnens explodierte der Sprengsatz und fügte Harris zahlreiche Fleischwunden und Verbrennungen zu.
19. Eine Analyse der Bestandteile des Sprengkörpers durch das ATF Labor zeigte, daß die hauptsächlich enthaltene Sprengladung aus Streichholzköpfen und einem Zündsystem aufgebaut war, das wiederum aus zwei unabhängigen Schaltkreisen bestand, von denen jedes den Sprengkörper zur Explosion bringen konnte. Jeder Schaltkreis bestand aus zwei C-Zellenbatterien, die mit zwei Holzdübelzündern verdrahtet waren. Jeder Zünder enthielt ein Paar Drähte, die durch einen Holzdübel geführt wurden. Die Drähte waren an ihrem Endpunkt durch einen kurzen Überbrückungsdraht verbunden. Der Endpunkt befand sich innerhalb der explosiven Hauptladung. Wenn die Kiste geöffnet wurde, schloß sich der elektrische Schaltkreis und der dünne Überbrückungsdraht wurde erhitzt, wodurch die Mischung aus Rauchlosem Pulver und Streichholzköpfen entzündet wurde. Die oben genannten Materialien waren in einer Zigarrenkiste der Marke "Phillies" enthalten, die einen Anti-Öffnungsschalter enthielt, der dazu bestimmt war, den Sprengmechanismus beim Öffnen des Deckels der Kiste auszulösen.
20. Die folgenden Komponenten wurden vom Explosionsort geborgen:
- "Phillies" Zigarrenschachtel
15. November 1979 - Chicago, Illinois
21. Dieser Sprengkörper war in einem Paket enthalten, das von der North Suburban postal facility (Posteinrichtung der nördlichen Vororte), die sich in Chicago befindet; Gebiet Illinois, am 14. November 1979 abgeschickt wurde. Die Ermittlungsbeamten waren aufgrund des Schadens, der infolge der Detonation des Pakets entstand, nicht in der Lage, den gedachten Empfänger des Pakets oder die Rücksendeadresse auszumachen. Da nun das Paket durch die Postangestellten der Vereinigten Staaten an Bord einer Boing 727 der American Airlines nach Washington D.C. geleitet worden war, glaubte man, das der Adressat im Nordosten der Vereinigten Staaten zu finden sei. Kurz nach dem Start, nachdem das Flugzeug die Durchschnittliche Flughöhe von 34,500 ft (10,515 km) erreicht hatte, bekam die Besatzung Probleme mit dem Flugzeug, was sie als dumpfen Knall beschrieben. Infolgedessen füllte sich die Kabine mit Rauch und das Flugzeug war gezwungen eine Notlandung zu machen. Es stellte sich später heraus, daß der Sprengkörper in einem Postcontainer explodiert war, der sich im Gepäckabteil befand. Ungefähr achtzehn der Passagiere wurden an Ort und Stelle wegen Rauchvergiftungen behandelt. Das Gepäck-abteil des Flugzeugs und die Gepäckstücke, die sich in ihm befanden, wurden durch Feuer beschädigt.
22. Eine Analyse der Bestandteile des Sprengkörpers durch das Labor des FBI enthüllte, daß er aus einem großen Saftbehälter konstruiert worden war, der eine Sprengstoffladung beherbergte, die rauchloses Pulver und eine Reihe von Chemikalien enthielt, die gewöhnlich bei der Herstellung von Pyrotechnik, z.B. Feuerwerkskörpern genutzt werden. Das Zündsystem bestand aus vier C-Zellenbatterien, die mit einem umgebauten Barometerschalter und einem Schleifenschalter an zwei selbst gefertigte Holzdübelzünder angeschlossen sind. Der Sprengkörper befand sich in einer selbstgebauten Holzkiste mit einem Deckel, der an der Rückseite befestigt wurde. Der Schalter des Barometers war so gestaltet, daß er den Sprengkörper zündete, während das Flugzeug an Höhe gewann. Der Sprengkörper enthielt auch ein zweites Zündungssystem, der aus einem Anti-Öffnungsschalter bestand, der den Sprengkörper aktivieren würde, sobald man den Deckel öffnete.
23. Die folgenden Bestandteile wurden am Explosionsort gesichert:
10.Juni 1980 - Lake Forrest, Illinois
24. Ein paar Tage vor dem 10.Juni 1980 erhielt Percy Wood, Präsident der United Airlines, einen maschinengeschriebenen Brief per U.S. Mail (Post der Vereinigten Staaten) von einem Enoch W. Fischer. Der Brief war an Woods Wohnsitz in Lake Forest, Illinois, einem Vorort von Chicago, gesendet worden. Der Brief sagte, daß Fischer sich die Freiheit erlaube, ein Buch zu schicken, von dem er meinte, daß es große soziale Bedeutung habe. Allerdings käme dieses Buch in einem anderen Umschlag. Am 9.Juni 1980, kam das Paket, das den Sprengkörper enthielt in Woods Residenz an, aber wurde von Wood erst am Nachmittag des 10.Juni 1980 geöffnet. Wood öffnete das Paket, welches ein Buch mit dem Namen "Ice Brothers" (Eisbrüder), geschrieben von Sloan Wilson, enthielt. Beim Öffnen des Buches explodierte der Sprengkörper und fügte mehrere ernsthafte Wunden an Woods Gesicht und linkem Oberschenkel zu. Die folgenden Untersuchungen zeigten, daß der Absender, Enoch W. Fischer, eine fiktive Person war.
26. Die folgenden Komponenten wurden am Explosionsort geborgen:
- Überreste des Buches mit dem Titel "Ice Brothers" (Eisbrüder)
8. Oktober 1981 - Salt Lake City, Utah
27. Dieser Sprengkörper befand sich in einem großen, in Papier eingewickelten Paket und wurde entdeckt im Gang der dritten Etage des Bennion Hall Business Building (Haus der Wirtschaftswissenschaften) an der University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah. Der Student, der das Paket entdeckte, machte einen Mitarbeiter darauf aufmerksam, worauf dieser die Campuspolizei informierte. Noch vor Ankunft der Polizei kippte ein Student das Paket, worauf ein Stock aus dem Boden herausrutschte. Der Präsident der Campuspolizei untersuchte das Paket und, da er glaubte es handele sich dabei um eine Bombe, kontaktierte er ein lokales Sprengstoff-Zerstörungsteam (EOD-team) und bat, daß sie zum Campus kämen. Nach ihrer Ankunft röntgte das EOD-team das Paket und stellte fest, daß es in der Tat eine Bombe sei. Der Sprengkörper wurde dann mit einer kleinen Sprengladung unschädlich gemacht.
28. Eine Analyse der Bestandteile des Sprengkörpers, die durch das FBI und die Laboratorien des Postdienstes durchgeführt wurde, zeigte, daß es aus einem galvanisierten Rohr mit den Maßen von 8" Länge und 1" Durchmesser konstruiert wurde, welches an beiden Enden mit hölzernen Stöpseln versehen war. Die explosive Mischung die in dem Rohr enthalten war, bestand aus mindestens drei Arten von Rauchlosem Pulver. Das Zündsystem bestand aus zwei D-Zellbatterien, einem An/Aus-Schalter, wie er in Haushalten Verwendung findet, einem improvisierten Gleitschalter, und einem improvisierten Zünder, in Serie geschaltet. Der Sprengkörper, der an einer Benzin-Kanister angebracht war, war so gestaltet, daß er detonieren sollte, wenn er ungefähr vier Inch weit angehoben würde, was dem Gleitschalter ermöglichen würde, einen Kontakt herzustellen. Der Sprengkörper enthielt auch ein Metallschild auf das die Buchstaben "FC" gestempelt worden waren.
29. Die folgenden Bestandteile wurden an der Explosionsstelle geborgen:
- Überreste galvanisierten Rohrs mit einem Durchmesser von 1"
5. May 1982 - Nashville, Tennessee
30. Dieser Sprengkörper war in einem Paket enthalten, der adressiert war und gesendet wurde an Professor Patrick C. Fischer an der Pennsylvania State University (PSU), mit einer Rücksendeadresse von Professor LeRoy W. Bearnson an der Brigham Young University (BYU) in Provo, Utah. Das Paket, das vom Postamt des Campus der BYU gesendet wurde, wurde infolge weitergesendet von einem Sekretär der PSU an Fischer in Vanderbilt, wo er für ungefähr zwei und ein halbes Jahr gelehrt hatte. Fischer war nicht im Lande zu der Zeit als das Päckchen in Vanderbilt ankam. Janet Smith, Fischers Sekretärin, öffnete das Paket, das explodierte und ihr ernste Verletzungen an ihrem Gesicht und ihren Armen zufügte. Während eines Interviews mit Dr. LeRoy Bearnson, Professor für Elektrotechnik, sagte er, daß er keine Kenntnis von solchem Paket hatte.
31. Eine Analyse der Bestandteile des Sprengkörpers, die von den Labors des FBI und des Postdienstes durchgeführt wurde, zeigte, daß es aus einem 1-1/2" starken Abflussrohr eines Haushaltsspülbeckens (U-förmiges Rohr) konstruiert worden war, versiegelt auf jeder Seite mit Holz/Metall Stöpseln und Nägeln. Die explosive Mischung, die in dem Rohr enthalten war, bestand aus mindestens fünf Arten Rauchlosen Pulvers. Das Zündsystem bestand aus vier D-Zellbatterien, die in zwei unabhängigen Schaltkreisen angeordnet waren. Jeder der Schaltkreise war so verkabelt, daß sie einen Schlaufenschalter und einen improvisierten Holzdübelzünder integrierten, der sich innerhalb des Rohrs befand. Der Sprengkörper war in einer selbstgebauten Holzkiste enthalten, die zwei schwingende Hebel einschloß, die von Gewebegummibändern in Spannung gehalten werden. Der Sprengkörper war so gebaut, daß er detoniert, wenn man die äußere Verpackung entfernt, wodurch Druck auf die Hebel entstand, durch den die Schleifenschalter geschlossen wurden. Der Sprengkörper enthielt ein Metallschild auf den die Buchstaben "FC" gestempelt waren.
32. Die folgenden Komponenten wurden von der Explosionsstelle geborgen:
- Überreste eines 1-1/2" Rohrs einer Metallspüle
2. Juli 1982 - Berkeley, California
33. Dieser Sprengkörper wurde von Professor Diogenes Angelakos in Raum 411 der Cory Hall des Mathematischen Gebäudes der University of California auf dem Berkeley Campus entdeckt. Angelakos entdeckte den Sprengkörper auf dem Boden und glaubte, es sei eine Art von Testgerät oder ein Stück Ausrüstung, das zu einem Studenten gehörte oder einem Konstruktionsteam. Beim Anheben des Griffs explodierte der Sprengkörper wobei Angelakos rechter Hand, seinem Arm und Gesicht zahlreiche Verletzungen zugefügt wurden.
34. Eine Analyse der Komponenten des Sprengkörpers, die durch das FBI-Labor durchgeführt wurde, zeigte, daß es aus einem 8- 1/2" langen und 1/2" starken galvanisierten Rohr konstruiert wurde, das an beiden Enden mit Gewindekappen versiegelt war. Die explosive Hauptladung, die in dem Rohr enthalten war, bestand aus mindestens vier Arten von Rauchlosem Pulver. Das Zündsystem bestand aus vier D-Zellenbatterien, die in zwei voneinander unabhängigen Schaltkreisen angeordnet waren. Jeder Schaltkreis war so verdrahtet, daß Schlaufenschalter integriert wurde, der mit einem jeden der aufrechten Schafte eines Griffs verbunden war, der wiederum mit einer Holzschachtel verbunden war und mit einem improvisierten Holzdübelzünder, der sich in dem Rohr befand. Der Sprengkörper bestand aus einer selbstgebauten Holzkiste, die am oberen Ende eines Benzinkanisters angebracht war. Das Rohr führte in den Benzinkanister. Dieser Sprengkörper war so gebaut, daß er durch das Anheben des Griffs detonieren sollte. Eingeschlossen in diesen Sprengkörper war ein Nebenteil, das so gestaltet war, daß es an ein Stück Test- oder Meßausrüstung erinnern sollte. Dieses Teil war oben auf den Sprengkörper gesetzt und hatte keine funktionellen Zweck für dessen Funktionstüchtigkeit, soweit die nachfolgende Laboranalyse in der Lage war, dies zu bestimmen. Angehängt an dieses Zusatzteil war eine Notiz die die gedruckte Phrase "Wu --- It works! I told you it would. --- RV." (Uh --- Es funktioniert! Ich sagte Dir ja, es würde funktionieren. --- RV.)
35. Die folgenden Bestandteile wurden vom Explosionsort geborgen:
- Überbleibsel eines 1/2" Rohrs
36. This device, in the form of a three-ring binder affixed to a plastic
37. An analysis of the components of the explosive device conducted by
the FBI Laboratory revealed that it was constructed from a length of 3/4"
38. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
39. This device was contained in a parcel, wrapped in brown paper, which was addressed and mailed to the Boeing Aircraft Company, Fabrication Division in Auburn, Washington, with a return address of Weiburg Tool & Supply in Oakland, California. Subsequent investigation revealed that the aforementioned company, listed on the parcel's return address, was both a fictitious name and fictitious address. The parcel, which had been mailed from Oakland (postmarked May 8, 1985) was not addressed to a specific individual, and therefore, remained in the company interoffice mail until it was partially opened by mail room employees who discovered the enclosed device. Boeing officials notified the King County Sheriff's Bomb Squad, who subsequently rendered the device safe by detonation.
40. An analysis of the components of the explosive device by the FBI and U.S. Postal Service Laboratories revealed that it was constructed from a 13-3/4" length of 1-1/4" diameter pipe. The pipe was sealed on either end by two aluminum plugs and secured by steel bars and epoxy glue. Both of the metal plugs had the initials "FC" stamped into their ends. The explosive mixture contained within the pipe was comprised of aluminum powder and potassium sulfate, a combustion product of black powder. The fuzing system consisted of eight D-cell batteries arranged in two independent four-cell circuits. Each circuit included an improvised slide switch, both of which were connected to a common improvised wood/metal initiator located inside of the pipe. The entire device was encased in a homemade wooden box. Each slide switch was mounted in a channel inside the box and held in tension by a spring. The device was designed to detonate upon removal of the wrapping paper which would open a lever in the box allowing the slide switches to move to the closed position.
41. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
43. An analysis of the components of the explosive device conducted by the FBI and Postal Service Laboratories revealed that it was contained in a hollowed-out ream of paper, and was constructed from a 10-1/4" length of 1" galvanized steel pipe. The pipe was sealed on either end by two plugs fabricated from steel bar stock each being secured by two steel pins with epoxy glue and shim material. One end plug was stamped with the letters "FC". In addition to the end construction, the pipe was reinforced on each end with short metal sleeves fashioned from another piece of pipe having an outer diameter of 1-5/16". The explosive mixture contained within the pipe was comprised of aluminum powder and ammonium nitrate. The fuzing system consisted of four D-cell and six AAA-cell batteries arranged in two independent circuits. Each circuit was wired to a spring- loaded triggering switch mechanism connected to a single improvised initiator located inside of the pipe. The device was designed to detonate upon unwrapping the parcel allowing tension to be relieved on the switch.
44. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
45. This device was left outside the rear door of Rentech Computer Rental
Company in Sacramento, California. The device had the appearance of a
46. An analysis of the components of the explosive device conducted by the FBI Laboratory revealed that it was constructed from a 10" length of 1" diameter steel pipe sleeved by a 1-1/4" diameter steel pipe of the same length. Thin metal shim material was fitted between the pipes, apparently to fill any remaining gap. The pipe assembly was sealed on either end by two 1" diameter steel plugs each of which were drilled to accommodate two steel securing pins. One of the end plugs had the letters "FC" stamped into its surface. The explosive mixture contained within the pipe was comprised of aluminum powder and ammonium nitrate. The fuzing system consisted of four D-cell batteries and one 9-volt battery. Each of the D-cell batteries had electric wires soldered to the positive terminals. The precise wiring of the device could not be determined due to the extreme damage. However, it is believed that the device incorporated some form of spring-loaded lever or anti-movement triggering system wired to an improvised initiator located inside of the pipe. This device was designed to detonate upon being moved.
47. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
L. February 20, 1987 - Salt Lake City, Utah
48. On the day of the bombing, an employee of a business in Salt Lake City, Utah, observed, through the blinds of the rear office window, an unidentified white male bending down next to the witness's car. The employee observed the individual remove from a cloth bag what appeared to be two 2x4 pieces of wood nailed together with protruding nails and place the object near the front left tire of the car. The witness then called to a co-worker in the office, at which time the individual turned and looked up at the witness in the window. The individual then stood up with the bag and walked away through the parking lot leaving the device behind. Approximately an hour later, Gary Wright, Vice-president of CAAMS, Inc., drove his car into the rear parking lot and, after parking, noticed the device laying on the ground. Upon moving, the device exploded inflicting serious injuries to Wright.
49. __ , was an employee of CAAMS, Inc., and provided UTF investigators
50. __ described his hands as being white, more so than his face, with long thin fingers and no hair on his hands that was noticed. __ stated his hands were clean, with no callouses observed, and the fingernails were clean. There were no scars, marks or jewelry on his wrist or hands, and the cuff on the white sweatshirt was gathered at the wrist.
51. __ has been re-interviewed regarding this event. __ has also worked with the UTF and sketch artists in order to develop a composite sketch, a recent composite drawing based on these interviews is attached to this affidavit as attachment 1.
52. An analysis of the components of the explosive device conducted by the FBI and ATF Laboratories revealed that it was constructed from a three layer concentric assembly of 1" and 1-1/4" steel pipes separated by a single layer of thin steel shim material. The pipe assembly was sealed on both ends by plugs fabricated from 1" steel bar stock, each secured with three metal pins and metal shim material. One of the end plugs had the initials "FC" stamped into its end. The explosive mixture contained within the pipe was comprised of aluminum powder and ammonium nitrate. Also present was potassium chloride and potassium sulfate. The fuzing system consisted of four D-cell batteries arranged in a single circuit to include an anti-lift or spring-loaded lever switch and an improvised initiator located inside of the pipe. This device was designed to detonate upon being moved.
53. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
54. This device was contained in a padded envelope and was mailed to
Dr. Charles Epstein at his residence in Tiburon, California. Dr. Epstein
was a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, Medical
School. The parcel was mailed from Sacramento, California, with a return
address listed as James Hill, Chemistry Department, California State University,
Sacramento, California. Mr. Hill has been interviewed and has no knowledge
of the parcel. Shortly after noon on June 22, 1993, Epstein's daughter
retrieved the parcel from the mailbox and placed it on the kitchen counter.
At approximately 4:30pm that day, Dr. Epstein returned to his residence
and began to open his mail.
55. An analysis of the components of the explosive device was conducted
56. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
57. This device was also contained in a padded envelope and was mailed
58. An analysis of the components of the destructive device conducted
by the FBI Laboratory revealed that the device was constructed from an
approximately 6" length of 3/8" copper tubing sealed on both
ends by plugs constructed from metal, wood, and epoxy and secured by 1/8"
metal pins. The explosive material contained within the tubing was comprised
of a mixture of potassium chlorate and aluminum powder. The fuzing system
consisted of four 9-volt batteries, an improvised anti-open switch, and
an improvised initiator. The exact wiring of
59. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
60. On June 24, 1993, Mr. Warren Hoge, Assistant Managing Editor for
the New York Times, received a letter from an individual or individuals
claiming to be an anarchist group calling themselves "FC". The
letter was mailed from Sacramento as were the explosive devices sent to
Dr. Epstein and Dr. Gelernter. The writer(s) noted in the letter that
the postmark on the letter preceded a newsworthy event and indicated that
the FBI was aware of their identities.
This device was housed inside a homemade wooden box which was placed
inside a white cardboard box . The package was mailed from San Francisco,
California postmark dated 12/3/94 to the residence of Thomas J. Mosser
at 15 Aspen Drive, North Caldwell, New Jersey. The package had a return
address of H. C. Wickel, Department of Economics, San Francisco State
University, San Francisco, California 94132. Subsequent investigation
determined that there was no faculty member or student at San Francisco
State University by that name, and no record of any such individual has
been located. On the morning
62. An analysis of the components of the destructive device conducted
by the FBI Laboratory revealed that the device was constructed from a
length of aluminum pipe (measuring at least 6- 1/2" in length but
no longer than 9-1/2" and having an inside diameter of 13/16",
with a wall thickness of 1/16").
63. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
64. On April 24, 1995, Dr. David Gelernter, the victim of device number 14, received a letter from "FC". The letter was postmarked in Oakland, California with the date of April 20, 1995, and was addressed to Gelernter at the Department of Computer Science, Yale University. The return address was "Ninth St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NW Washington, DC 20535". This is the address of the F.B.I. Headquarters building. The letter, which was opened by Gelernter's assistant, states in part, that... "there are a lot of people out there who resent bitterly the way "echo-nerds like you are changing the world and you wouldn't have been dumb enough to open an unexpected package from an unknown source". The letter continues, discussing the contribution of computers to "invasion of privacy, ... genetic engineering, ... (and) environmental degradation through economic growth", "If there were no computer scientists there would be no progress in computer science". The letter states that "Warren Hoge" of the New York Times could confirm that the letter came from "FC."
65. On April 24, 1995, Dr. Phillip A. Sharp received a letter addressed to him at the Biology Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts. The letter had a postmark of Oakland, California and was dated April 20, 1995. The contents of the letter read as follows: "Dr. Sharp: It would be beneficial to your health to stop your research in genetics. This is a warning from FC. Warren Hoge of the New York Times can confirm that this note does come from FC." The letter had a return address of Manfred Morari, 2735 Ardmore Road, San Marino, California 91108-1768. Morari was interviewed by the UTF and stated he had no knowledge of the letter.
66. On April 24, 1995, Dr. Richard J. Roberts received a letter which
had been addressed to him at New England Biolabs, Beverly, Massachusetts
01915. The letter, with the exception of the addressee, contained the
same language as the letter to Dr. Sharp. The letter had a postmark of
Oakland, California and
67. On April 24, 1995, Mr. Warren Hoge, Assistant Managing Editor for the New York Times, received a "message from FC" in a letter form which also contained the number 553-25-4394, as did the previous New York Times letter of June 24, 1993. The letter was mailed from Oakland, California, as were the other letters dated April 20, 1995 to Gelernter, Sharp and Roberts. The letter discusses several of the past devices and why victims Epstein, Gelernter, and Mosser were selected by F.C.
68. According to this letter Thomas Mosser was selected "because he was a Burston-Marsteller executive. Among other misdeeds, Burston-Marsteller helped Exxon clean up its public image after the Exxon Valdez incident". Individuals at universities who were "attacked have been specialists in technical fields", which included "certain areas of applied psychology, such as behavior modification". The letter explained that its author is a group of anarchists, whose goal is to "break down all society into very small, completely autonomous units...", ultimately resulting in the "destruction of the world industrial system" through their bombings. The letter then discusses the "group of anarchists" construction and evolutionary testing of the devices. The result, according to the letter was the ability to "pack deadly bombs into ever smaller, lighter and more harmless looking packages. On the other hand, we believe we will be able to make bombs much bigger than any we've made before". The letter then proposes a "bargain", concerning the publication of an article, 29,000 to 37,000 words in length. The publication of the article, according to the "group's" conditions, would result in the termination of "terrorist activities". However, the letter distinguishes "terrorism" from "sabotage", in that terrorism is primarily directed against human beings, while sabotage is against property. The letter stated "We reserve the right to engage in sabotage."
69. This device was housed inside a wooden box which was covered with brown wrapping paper, bound by filament tape. The package was mailed from Oakland, California, and was addressed to William Dennison, Timber Association of California, 1311 I Street, Sacramento, California. The Timber Association of California however, had changed its name to the California Forestry Association, several years earlier, but had retained the same Sacramento address. The package had a return address of Closet Dimensions, Oakland, California. On the afternoon April 24, 1995, Gilbert B. Murray, President, California Forestry Association, opened the package, which exploded and killed him.
70. An analysis of the components of the destructive device conducted by the FBI Laboratory revealed that the device was constructed from a unknown length of lead pipe. The pipe had been intentionally scored to increase the potential of smaller shrapnel fragments. The explosive device was housed in a wooden box, covered with brown wrapping paper, secured by 3/4" filament tape. Two cast aluminum disks, approximately 3 1/2" in diameter, and approximately 7/16" thick, were also recovered. These disks appear to be of a "homemade" origin, containing numerous steel wires, believed to have been used for reinforcement purposes. The construction of the wooden box was similar to the wooden boxes utilized in devices 13, 14, and 15. Contained in the device was an undetermined length of approximately 3/8" copper tubing, which had an approximate wall thickness of .030". One end of the tube was sealed by a metal plug, secured in place by an approximate 1/8" metal pin. A partial closure plug for the opposing end was approximately 3/8" in diameter, and 3/8" in length. This plug exhibited two hole passing through the axis, which could have been used to contain the hot wire igniter. The construction of the copper tube and end plug is similar in construction to the copper tubing used in devices 13 and 14. The explosive mixture contained within the lead pipe was comprised of potassium chlorate and aluminum powder. The fuzing system consisted of at least four 9-volt batteries. The exact nature of the switching mechanism and the wiring schematic cannot be determined due to the fragmented condition of the components.
71. The following components were recovered from the blast scene:
72. On June 27, 1995, Mr. Jerry Roberts, Editorial Page Editor, San Francisco Chronicle, received a letter addressed to him at the office address of 901 Mission Street, San Francisco, California, 94103. The letter had a postmark of San Francisco, California, and was dated June 24, 1995. The letter had a return address of Fredrick Benjamin Isaac Wood, 549 Wood Street, Woodlake, California 93286. The letter claimed to be a warning from "The terrorist group FC, called unabomber by the FBI". The letter stated that the group was planning to "blow up an airliner out of Los Angeles International Airport some time during the next six days". The letter then provided the first two digits of "the identifying number" as 55.
73. On June 28, 1995, Mr. Warren Hoge, Assistant Managing Editor for
the New York Times, received a "message from FC", which supplied
the identifying number, 553-25-4394. The envelope had a postmark of San
Francisco, California, which was dated June 24, 1995. The letter had a
return address of Calgene Inc., 1920 5th Street, Davis, California 95616.
Enclosed with the message was a "manuscript" of approximately
65 pages, which "FC" wished to have published, as had been previously
stated in the April 24, 1995 letter to Hoge. The message then continued
to set forth various terms and conditions
74. On June 27, 1995, Mr. Michael Getler, Deputy Managing Editor, Washington
Post received a "message from the terrorist group FC". The envelope
had a postmark of San Francisco, California, which was dated June 24,
75. On June 29, 1995, Mr. Bob Guccione, Penthouse Magazine, received
a "message from FC" in letter form. The envelope had a postmark
of San Francisco, California, which was dated June 24, 1995. The letter
had a return address ___ The letter to an earlier offer by Penthouse to
publish a manuscript from FC in exchange for the group's "promise
to desist from terrorism". The letter also stated that authentication
of the communication could be made through contact with the New York Times,
as it was familiar with the "secret identifying number, which is
known only to the New York Times and the FBI". Enclosed with the
Penthouse letter was a copy of the same message and manuscript sent to
the New York Times. The letter to Penthouse then mentioned the terms and
conditions for the manuscript's publication in Penthouse but stated a
preference for publication in the New York Times or the Washington Post.
The letter further stated as an "incentive" for the New York
Times or another "respectable" periodical to publish the manuscript,
the group states
76. The Guccione/Penthouse letter then references and discusses excerpts
from an unknown 1985 letter, allegedly sent by the group to the "Examiner".
Z. Scientific American Magazine Letter - June 24, 1995
77. On June 28, 1995, ___ , Scientific American, received a two page
letter referencing an article, by Russell Ruthen, "Strange Matters:
Can Advanced Accelerators Initiate Runaway Reaction ?", from August,
1993 magazine publication. The letter then proceeds to discuss technical
advances by scientists and other entities, and the negative aspects of
these developments on society. In the last two paragraphs of the letter,
the author is identified as "the terrorist group FC", and quotes
paragraph four of the New York Times letter dated June 24, 1995, for purposes
of authentication . The envelope was not retained by the recipient.
Dr. Tom Tyler Letter - June 24, 1995
78. On June 30, 1995, Dr. Tom Tyler, Social Psychology Group, University
of California, Berkeley, received a "message from FC" in letter
form. The envelope had a postmark of San Francisco, California, which
was dated June 24, 1995. The letter had a return address ___ The letter
referenced "a newspaper article" in which Dr. Tyler commented
on "recent bombing, including ours". Enclosed
79. The commonalities and the similarities between the incidents and the 16 explosive devices demonstrate that the individual(s) who constructed the devices acted in a continual and consistent pattern of activity from the time of the first bomb in 1978 until the present day. The following paragraphs list these commonalities and similarities.
80. Explosive Device Construction - All of the devices have been characterized
81. Explosive Main Charges - The main charges in devices 1 through 7
82. Main Charge Housings - The main charge housing in all of the explosive
devices, with the exception of devices 2 and 3, consisted of a length
of metallic pipe. The construction exhibited in devices 11 and 12 are
nearly identical in that each consisted of a three layer concentric assembly
of 1" and 1-1/4" steel pipes separated by a thin steel shim
and closed on each end by 1" diameter steel plugs. The lengths of
1-1/4" steel pipe for these two devices are consistent with having
originally been one contiguous piece. The lengths of 1" steel pipe
and the thin steel shim material placed between the two pipes also could
have originated from the same stock. Devices 8 and 10 are similar in that
each incorporated a 1-1/4" diameter collars around each end of the
3/4" pipe. Both pipes were closed on each end by a 3/4" steel
plug. All of the end plugs in devices 8, 10, 11, and 12 were secured by
5/16" diameter pins. Devices 8, 10 and 11 are similar in that the
ends of the securing pins displayed small tick marks. Device 15 is similar
to devices 8 and 10 in that it incorporated a metal collar over each end
of the main charge tube. Device 15 also utilized metal end plugs, similar
to devices 8, 10, 11, and 12, which were secured in place by 1/4"
metal locking pins, 1-1/2 " in length. The main charge housings in
83. Fusing Systems - All of the devices with the exception of the first device employed similarly constructed electrical fusing systems. Each of these devices included a power source, similar wiring arrangements, a switch, and an initiator. The power sources in devices 2 through 12 are similar in that they consisted of varying numbers of batteries joined together by soldering wires to their respective terminals. The use of D-cell batteries was common to devices 4 through 12. The power sources in devices 13, 14, 15 and 16 are identical in that they each consisted of at least four nine volt batteries. The removal of the outer battery casings was observed in devices 11 through 16. Soldering was used to connect the wiring to the battery terminals. All devices, except for 1 and 7, exhibited soldering in excess of that needed to perform the task. Common in the wiring of each of these devices was the use of separated, multi-strand duplex wire normally encountered in household appliances. The improvised loop switches observed in devices 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 are extremely unusual and exhibit nearly identical construction techniques. With the exception of device 3, all of the loop switches were constructed from separated, duplex multi-strand wire. The insulation on the wires in devices 11 and 12 bear the same extrusion marks and, therefore, were made on the same machine. The brown stranded wire used in devices 8 through 12 has the same physical characteristics and many lengths bear the marking, SPT-2 E-11981, thus possibly having been obtained from the same source. Devices 13, 14 and 15 incorporated a type of improvised flip switch. The improvised initiators present in devices 2, 3, and 5 through 8 were assembled in a similar fashion and consisted of a wooden dowel, a pair of wires, and a bridgewire. The initiator assemblies present in devices 9 through 15 are similar to devices 5 through 8 in that they were designed to accommodate a pair of initiator wires in a similar arrangement. Devices 10, 11, and 12 utilized red insulated, multi- strand wire for the initiator wires.
84. Tape - All of the explosive devices are similar in that each contained numerous types of tape used in the assembly and packaging of the device. Present in all of the devices was 3/4" black plastic tape.
85. Wooden Box/Frame Construction - With the exception of device 2, all
of the devices incorporated some form of a wooden box or frame, hand-fashioned
and fabricated from a variety of wood types utilizing various types of
nails, screws and other fasteners. Devices 11 and 12 exhibited nearly
86. Letters "FC" - These letters are associated with all of
the devices with the exception of 1, and 2. Metal tags approximately 1/2"
to 5/8" wide bearing the stamped letters "FC" were recovered
from devices 4, 5, and 6. Devices 8 through 12 revealed the same stamped
letters on the main charge housing end plugs. The letters "FC"
were directly associated with devices 5, 13, 14, and 15, in the letter
to the New York Times, postmarked April 20, 1995; devices 3, 6,
87. Typewriter impressions - Qualified document examiners have conducted comparisons of the typewriter impressions appearing on documentary evidence recovered from Device 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, and 15. They have also compared the typed letters sent to Dr. David Gelernter, Dr. Phillip A. Sharp, Dr. Richard J. Roberts, Dr. Tom Tyler, the San Francisco Chronicle, Scientific American, Penthouse Magazine, Washington Post and the New York Times, dated June 24, 1993 and April 24, 1995. They have concluded the same typewriter was used to type all these documents. No typewriter impressions were recovered from the crime scene of device 16, due to a small fire which occurred after the device detonated.
88. Stapler - Tool Marks - Qualified examiners have conducted comparisons
of the various staples used in devices 13, device 14, and the letters
sent to the New York Times, postmarked June 25, 1995, Penthouse Magazine,
postmarked June 24, 1995. They have concluded that unique marks left upon
some of the staples are identical. The following staples had identical
tool marks: three of the staples removed from the New York Times letter,
one of the staples from the Penthouse letter, two of the staples from
device 13, and one of the staples
89. Victims - Most of the victims, or intended victims, fall into four categories: (1) airline-related, (2) university-related, (3) computer- related, and (4) Public Relations. Some of the victims fall into more than one category. Airline-related victims are in devices 3, 4, and 9. University-related victims are in devices 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, and 14. Computer-related victims are in devices 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 14. The victims in devices 15 and 16 were employed in businesses which dealt with public relations issues.
90. Misleading Return Address - Nine devices were mailed and one device was placed near a business to appear as a mailed or delivered item. Of these ten devices, at least nine utilized deceptive or misleading return addressers and addressees, as opposed to no return address. Devices 4, 9, 10, and 15, utilized fictitious return addressers. Devices 1, 6, 13, 14, and 16 utilized actual persons or businesses as return addressers; however, these entities had no known connection to the mailings. Device 3 was mailed; however, due to the extreme damage caused to the parcel, no addresses could be discerned.
91. "Priority Mail" Stamp - The use of the "Priority Mail" stamp on the outer parcel wrapping was observed in devices 6, 10, 13, 14, 15 and 16.
92. United States Postal Stamps - All of the ten mailed devices utilized United States postage stamps, as opposed to having a postage metering strip. Nine different types of stamps, in varying combinations, appeared on the ten different devices. Four different stamps depicting the United States Flag were used. The first was a 29 cent, U.S. Flag with the Olympic Rings, which was first issued in April 1991. This stamp appeared on devices 13, 14 and the letter to the New York Times, dated June 24, 1993. The second stamp depicts the U.S. Flag in front of the United States Capitol. This 22 cent stamp was first issued in March 1985, and appeared on devices 9, 10, and 15. The third stamp has the U.S. Flag with a background setting of clouds. This stamp was first issued in May 1988, and appeared on device 15. The fourth U.S. Flag stamp, was the 32 cent "Old Glory" G Series. It was used on device 16, and the letters sent to Dr. David Gelernter, Dr. Phillip A. Sharp, Dr. Richard J. Roberts, and the New York Times (April 24, 1995) . The "Old Glory" G Series 32 cent stamp was also used on the packages and letters sent to the San Francisco Chronicle, New York Times, Washington Post, Penthouse Magazine, and Dr. Tom Tyler, all of which were postmarked June 24, 1995. The envelope from the Scientific American letter was not retained by the recipient. Three of the device stamps used were from the Prominent Americans series, to include the Eugene O'Neill, Lucy Stone, and Frederick Douglass stamps. The $1.00 O'Neill stamp, in sheet version, was first issued in October 1967 and appeared on devices 1, 3 and 6. The $1.00 O'Neill stamp, in roll version, was first issued in January 1978 and appeared on device 15 and 16. The 50 cent Lucy Stone stamp was first issued August of 1968 and appeared on device 3. The 25 cent Frederick Douglass stamp was first issued in February 1967 and appeared on devices 3 and 4. The last two stamps were a 15 cent Will Rogers, from the Performing Arts and Artists Series, and a $1.00 Rush Lamp and Candleholder, also known as "America's light fueled by truth and reason". The Will Rogers stamp was first issued in November 1979 and was used on device 4. The Rush Lamp and Candleholder was first issued in July 1979 and appeared on devices 3, 4 , 9 and 10. Device 16 also had $ 2.90 stamps affixed to the face of the package. The type of exact type of stamp is unknown, and is believed to have been consumed in a small fire that resulted after the device detonated.
93. Geographic Areas of Incidents and Mailings - Several devices are
related to the Chicago, Illinois area. Devices 1 and 2 were placed at
universities in the Chicago metro area. Devices 3 and 4 were mailed from
the Chicago metro area. The victim of device 4 resided in Lake Forest,
a suburb of Chicago. Other devices are associated with the Salt Lake City/Provo,
Utah, area. Devices 5 and 12
94. Mailing Labels - Eight of the devices were packaged with pre- printed mailing labels affixed to the outside. Devices 1, 4, and 6 had identical labels believed to be manufactured by Dennison. Devices 9 and 10 had identical labels from an unknown source. Device 15 had the same type of mailing label consistent with device 9 and 10, with the exception that the lower portion of the device 15 label has been removed along the manufacturers prescored line. Devices 13, and 14 had identical appearing labels, believed to be manufactured by Quikstik.
A. Identity 95. Beginning on February 14, 1996, David Kaczynski informed members of the UNABOM Task Force (UTF) that he believes his brother Theodore John Kaczynski, also known as "Ted", to be the person responsible for the UNABOM event. David Kaczynski initiated contact with the FBI through an attorney. He stated that he did not want any of the reward money offered in connection with this investigation.
96. Investigation by the UTF has revealed that Theodore John Kaczynski is a white male, 5'9", 150 pounds, with a date of birth of May 22, 1942. He has a Montana driver's license #342-34-3701 with a listed address as HCR 30, Lincoln, Montana and a mailing address of P.O. Box 524, Lincoln, Montana.
97. A warranty deed dated June 19, 1971 in the County of Lewis and Clark, State of Montana indicates that Clifford Gehring, Sr. sold a 1.4 acre parcel of land with the right of ingress and egress from Stemple Pass to Theodore John Kaczynski and his brother David R. Kaczynski. The property was more particularly described as four miles south of Lincoln, Montana, 1/4 mile east of Stemple Pass Road on Canyon Creek.
98. A postage stamp obtained from the envelope used to mail a copy of the FC manuscript to Dr. Tom Tyler was subjected to DNA analysis by the FBI Laboratory-DNA Section. The results of that analysis were compared to results obtained from the postage stamp and envelope flap of a letter sent by Theodore Kaczynski to his brother David Kaczynski. Based upon the analysis of the DQ alpha (DQA1) and the Polymarker (PM) Loci, the source of the DNA on the known sample (Theodore Kaczynski's letter to Dave Kaczynski) is included as a potential contributor to the DNA detected on the stamp from the letter received by Dr. Tyler.
99. The estimated probability expressed as a percentage of selecting
an unrelated individual at random from the population having DQA1 type
1.1,2 as detected in these specimens, is approximately 3 percent of Caucasians,
3 percent of Blacks, and 5 percent of Southeastern Hispanics and 2 percent
of Southwestern Hispanics.
102. David Kaczynski informed the UTF that he and his brother grew up in Chicago, Illinois (the locale of the first four bombings); his brother had obtained his doctorate from the University of Michigan (the location of a mail bomb victim targeted by the UNABOM subject); his brother had taught at the University of California at Berkeley (the site of two UNABOM bombings); and his brother had lived and worked in Salt Lake City, Utah (the location of several UNABOM events.)
103. Independent investigation conducted by the UTF revealed that Theodore Kaczynski graduated from Evergreen Park High School in Evergreen Park, Illinois. He also attended Harvard University from 1958-1962, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1962. Theodore Kaczynski attended the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Michigan from 1963-1967, where he earned both his master's and doctorate.
104. Independent investigation conducted has further revealed that Theodore
Kaczynski was employed as an Assistant Professor of Mathematics from July
16, 1967 through June 30, 1969 at the University of California, Berkeley
106. David Kaczynski advised investigators that he recognized, in particular, a paragraph in the first portion of the manuscript that spoke of art and the human experience. Paragraph 17 of the UNABOM manuscript (attachment 2) discusses art and rationality.
107. David emphasized that his brother has long been committed to "rationality" as a guiding principle. He further stated that since his brother's ideas were based on a "rational ideal", any action in support of them was justifiable. David Kaczynski expressed his sadness to investigators in commenting that this type of justification would enable his brother to feel fully justified and even visionary in killing people to accomplish his "rational objectives."
D. A Comparative Analysis: Theodore Kaczynski's Essay and Letters and the UNABOM Manuscript
108. In addition to providing 86 personal letters received from Theodore Kaczynski during the preceding 30 years, David Kaczynski provided investigators with a photocopy of a carbon copy of an essay written by his brother in approximately 1971 (a copy of this essay and incorporated by reference to this affidavit in attachment number 3). In that essay his brother, Theodore Kaczynski, discusses the necessity of forming and supporting an organization to bring about the end of Federal and corporate funding for scientific research. David Kaczynski has advised the UTF that his brother personally discussed with him in approximately 1971 the possibility of David heading up such an organization. David stated that he recognized substantial similarity between the ideas, concepts and expressions contained in his brother's 23 page essay and the UNABOM manuscript.
109. On March 23, 1996, Wanda Kaczynski, Theodore and David Kaczynski's mother, provided UTF members with a carbon copy of the essay bearing handwritten notations identified by David as Theodore Kaczynski's handwriting.
110. The affiant has consulted with and reviewed the findings of FBI Supervisory Special Agent James R. Fitzgerald, who has directed the comparative analysis of all of Theodore Kaczynski's correspondence and documentation in a side-by-side comparison of the UNABOM letters and 56 page manuscript entitled Industrial Society and Its Future. Through this study SSA Fitzgerald has informed the affiant that the content, context and writing style of Theodore Kaczynski's 6,374 word, 23-page, essay (attachment 3) and the 34,649 word UNABOM manuscript (attachment 2) are very similar. Some of those similarities are as follows:
111. One of the 47 paragraphs in the 1971 essay, 35 of the paragraphs can be correlated by subject matter with paragraphs in the UNABOM manuscript.
112. The comparative analysis provides over 160 examples of similarities including the following:
Theodore Kaczynski wrote in his 1971 essay (see attachment 3) regarding his objection to Perry London's view in his book Behavior Control, "I simply find the sphere of freedom that he favors too narrow for me to accept." The UNABOM manuscript states in paragraph 93, "We are going to argue that industrial-technological society cannot be reformed in such a way as to prevent it from progressively narrowing the sphere of human freedom ...." In paragraphs 111, 128 and 133, the UNABOM manuscript contains references to "... narrowing our sphere of ... freedom .... narrows our sphere of freedom ..... invades our sphere of freedom ...."
In Theodore Kaczynski's 1971 essay, he states: "Direct physical control of the emotions via electrodes and 'chemitrodes' inserted in the brain." Paragraph 158 of the UNABOM manuscript states: "It presumably would be impractical for all people to have electrodes inserted in their heads."
In Theodore Kaczynski's 1971 essay, he states: "Various electronic
devices for surveillance. These are being used. For example, according
to newspaper reports, the police of New York City have recently instituted
a system of 24 hour television surveillance over certain problem areas
of the city." Paragraph 147
In Theodore Kaczynski's 1971 essay, he states: "... Think of all the misery suffered as a result of Victorian repressions, sexual perversions, frigidity, unwanted pregnancies, and venereal disease." Note two of the UNABOM manuscript reads: "During the Victorian period many oversocialized people suffered from serious psychological problems as a result of repressing or trying to repress their sexual feelings."
In Theodore Kaczynski's 1971 essay, he states: "Propaganda and image-making techniques. In this context we must not neglect the role of movies, television, literature, which commonly are regarded either as art or as entertainment, but which often consciously adopt certain points of view and thus serve as propaganda." Paragraph 73 of the UNABOM manuscript states: "...Propaganda is not limited to 'commercials' and advertisements...the content of entertainment programming is a powerful form of propaganda."
In Theodore Kaczynski's 1971 essay, he states: "... we can assume that people will live more and more in the world of mass entertainment." Paragraph 156 of the UNABOM manuscript states: "... yet mass entertainment is a means of escape and stress-reduction on which most of us have become dependent."
113. There are additional similarities between the writing of Theodore Kaczynski and documents related to the UNABOM events. In a handwritten and undated rough draft written by Theodore Kaczynski provided to the UTF by Wanda Kaczynski on March 23, 1996, Theodore Kaczynski states: "... Modern technology has led to the concentration of economic and political power ... by Big Business and Big Government." In note 13 of the UNABOM manuscript, the UNABOM subject states: "... The conservatives are ... exploiting his resentment of Big Government to promote the power of Big Business."
114. Other examples of similarities include the same uncommon (and in the last case inaccurate) spellings of words used in both categories of documents, such as "analyse" versus "analyze"; "wilfully" instead of "willfully"; licence instead of license and "instalment" rather than "installment."
115. A summary of similarities between documents associated with Theodore Kaczynski and documents associated with UNABOM events is contained in attachment 4 to this affidavit. Attachment 4 was prepared by SSA Fitzgerald in this investigation.
116. Many letters written by Theodore Kaczynski to his brother David
and mother Wanda discussed his wilderness lifestyle. These discussions
of Theodore Kaczynski's lifestyle are consistent with the description
of Theodore Kaczynski's lifestyle provided to the UTF by David and Wanda
Kaczynski, as well as ___ These discussions of Theodore Kaczynski's lifestyle
are also consistent with reference to the UNABOM manuscript.
In a letter to David Kaczynski dated August 28, 1979, Theodore Kaczynski says: "....by wilderness I meant a place where our nearest neighbor would be 5 miles away..." In paragraph 55 the UNABOM manuscript says: "many nuclear families lived by choice in such isolation; having no neighbors within several miles.
In a letter to David dated November 17, 1982, Theodore Kaczynski says: "... partial destruction of the ozone layer in the atmosphere, which is caused by releases of fluorcarbons ..." and in a letter dated September 21, 1988, says: "They predict that in the coming years there will be increasing more drought ... because of the greenhouse effect." Paragraph 169 of the UNABOM manuscript says, "No one knows what will happen as a result of ozone depletion, the greenhouse effect and other environmental problems ..."
In a letter to ___ dated July 23, 1984, Theodore Kaczynski writes, "...primitive people...may have had some elaborate process for making edible, as with certain other plants." Theodore Kaczynski refers to the "edibility of the roots" in several letters. Paragraph 198 of the UNABOM manuscript says, "When primitive man needed food he knew how to find and prepare edible roots ...
In a letter to David dated August 21, 1981 Theodore Kaczynski writes, "... hunting and gathering wild fruits ... killing an animal for its meat." In paragraph 75 of the UNABOM manuscript, "... hunting not for sport ... but to get meat that is necessary for food."
E. Further Comparative Analysis Between UNABOM Manuscript and Theodore Kaczynski's Letters
118. The UNABOM manuscript (attachment 2) specifically refers by title to four books: The Ancient Engineers by L. Sprague DeCamp; Chinese Political Thought in the Twentieth Century, by Chester D. Tan; The True Believer, by Eric Hoffer; and Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, by Roger Lane and edited by Hugh Davies Graham and Ted Robert Gurr. In the UNABOM manuscript, Note 16 has quotes from Chapter 12, pages 476-478 of Violence In America. The UNABOM subject sent a letter and a copy of his manuscript to "Scientific American" on June 24, 1995. The UNABOM subject referenced an article in the August, 1993 issue of "Scientific American" by Russell Ruthen, entitled, "Strange Matters: Can Advanced Accelerators Initiate Runaway Reactions?", and a July, 1993 article entitled "Risk Analysis and Management," by M. Granger Morgon. The UNABOM manuscript made reference to articles in two magazines, "OMNI" and "Scientific American."
119. In a letter from Theodore Kaczynski to David Kaczynski dated September
2, 1986, Theodore Kaczynski makes reference to
120. In an interview with the FBI on February 17-18, 1996, David Kaczynski advised that the Kaczynski family subscribed to "Scientific American" at least up until the time that he went to college. Moreover, "Scientific American" was around the house and readily available to family members. In Theodore Kaczynski's application for admission to Harvard College dated October 22, 1957, question "G" requests the applicant to cite examples of current reading, to include books, magazines and newspapers. Theodore Kaczynski cites "Scientific American" to answer this question. UTF investigators ___ several letters written to __ by Theodore Kaczynski. In one of the letters dated May 26, 1991, Theodore Kaczynski references an article entitled "Aspirin" in the January, 1991, issue of "Scientific American."
121. On March 24, 1996, Wanda Kaczynski, Theodore's mother, provided
a letter authored by Theodore dated December 14, 1969, and addressed to
the editor of the Chicago Daily News. Paragraph 2 of the letter began,
"The stricter gun control laws recommended by the U.S. Commission
on Violence are a case in point."
F. Analysis of UNABOM Letters by David Kaczynski
124. David Kaczynski reviewed all of the writings attributed to the UNABOM subject. He came to the conclusion that based upon content, style, and specific phraseology of the writings that they were written by his brother, Theodore Kaczynski.
G. Scholarly Analysis of UNABOM Manuscript
126. Another individual, who is a doctor and a holder of a PhD (whose identity is known to the UTF), contacted the UTF and opined that the UNABOM manuscript was authored by an individual that was very familiar with and even paraphrased ideas from two books, In Defense of Elitism by William A. Henry, III (1994) and Behavioral Control by Perry London (1969). Your affiant notes that Theodore Kaczynski cites Jacques Ellul's The Technological Society and Perry London's Behavioral Control beginning on page 10 of his 23-page essay (attachment 3), and devotes several pages to London's philosophy. Perry London, on page 128 of his book Behavioral Control refers by name to University of Michigan Professor James McConnell. Professor McConnell was injured by a UNABOM mail bomb that was mailed from Salt Lake City, Utah, on November 12, 1985.
H. Theodore Kaczynski and Professor James
128. Theodore Kaczynski's Harvard transcripts indicate that he took a course entitled the "History of Science" while pursuing his Bachelor of Arts degree at Harvard. The UNABOM explosive device that was mailed to Professor McConnell on November 12, 1985, was accompanied by a letter purported to be from a Ralph C. Kloppenburg, Department of History, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. The letter served as an enticement to encourage Professor McConnell to open the package and review an unsolicited doctoral dissertation. The letter read, in part:
"Dear Dr. McConnell: I am a doctoral candidate in history at the University of Utah. My field of interest is the History of Science, and I am writing my dissertation on the development of the Behavioral Sciences during the 20th century ...."
129. In the 23-page essay attributed to Theodore Kaczynski (attachment 3), circa 1971, it states that "continued scientific and technical progress will inevitably result in the extinction of individual liberty" and lists as an "ominous" development "operant conditioning, (after the manner of B.F. Skinner and friends)." The essay ends by proposing the foundation of an organization dedicated to stopping federal and corporate aid to scientific research.
130. In the second paragraph of the UNABOM letter from "Kloppenburg" to Professor McConnell, the writer states in part,
"... I am attempting to analyse the factors in society at large that tend to promote vigorous development in a given area of science, and especially I am attempting to shed light on the way in which progress in a particular field of research influences public attitudes toward that field in such a manner as to further accelerate its development, as through research grants ..."
131. Professor McConnell's behavior modification techniques were documented in scientific literature and involved "operant conditioning". His findings were widely publicized in digests and journals, as well as a Psychology textbook, Understanding Human Behavior, which, according to the publisher, became one of the top five best selling textbooks in its field. Professor McConnell received research grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (a Federal Agency) for his work in this field.
I. David Kaczynski's Chronology of Theodore Kaczynski
133. UTF investigation has verified that Theodore Kaczynski was an Assistant Professor of Mathematics at the University of California - Berkeley (UCB), as confirmed in the UCB General Catalogue, 1968- 69. The Department of Mathematics was located in Campbell Hall. Campbell Hall is located in close proximity to Cory Hall, which was the site of placed UNABOM devices on July 2, 1982 and May 13, 1985.
134. In an interview with the UTF on February 18, 1996, David Kaczynski recalled that shortly after departing UCB, his brother had played a practical joke involving a forged letter. Theodore Kaczynski sent a letter to one professor at UCB, purportedly from another professor. David Kaczynski was quite impressed with the content and manner in which the letter was drafted. Dave could not explain this peculiar behavior, other than to say that Ted did not have any friends of his own to write to during that period.
135. David Kaczynski recalled that, in June, 1969, Theodore Kaczynski quit his job at UCB. Shortly thereafter, David met his brother in Wyoming and they travelled in Theodore Kaczynski's car to British Columbia, Canada to find some land. Theodore Kaczynski found some land near Prince George and filed homesteading-type applications for the land. Theodore Kaczynski returned to his family's home in Lombard, Illinois, in the summer of 1969, where he lived while awaiting word from the Canadian government on his land application.
136. During the winter of 1970, Theodore Kaczynski received a letter from the Canadian government rejecting his application. Theodore Kaczynski remained at his parent's home, but did not work. He became very anti-social and withdrawn, and stayed in his room reading. It was at this time that Theodore Kaczynski began writing letters to editors concerning technology and liberty.
137. In July or August, 1970, David received a letter from his parents, who shared the content of a note received from his brother. The note said that their parents were the best parents anyone could have, and he was sorry if he disappointed them.
138. Shortly thereafter, Theodore Kaczynski showed up at David's apartment in Great Falls, Montana. Theodore Kaczynski told David about conflict with their parents and said he had to get away. Theodore Kaczynski wanted to know if David wanted to join him and become 50-50 partners on a land purchase, to which David agreed. Theodore Kaczynski found 1.4 acres near Lincoln, Montana, for $2,100. Theodore and David Kaczynski each contributed $1,050 to purchase the land. Theodore Kaczynski thereafter purchased lumber and supplies and, without any help, built a small cabin on the site.
139. Wanda Kaczynski provided the UTF with copies of letters Theodore Kaczynski wrote in 1969 and 1970 to editors of Chicago newspapers and various magazine concerning technology and liberty. Wanda also provided a copy of an undated letter from Theodore Kaczynski that said "no one could want better parents."
140. According to David, Theodore Kaczynski stayed at his Lincoln, Montana, cabin until late 1972 or 1973, when he travelled to Salt Lake City, Utah to find a job. According to David, Theodore Kaczynski spent about six months in Salt Lake City, working as an unskilled carpenter's helper for a private contractor. David visited overnight with his brother at an apartment in Salt Lake City during David's trip from Chicago to Great Falls, Montana. David Kaczynski recalled that Theodore Kaczynski thereafter returned to Montana in June, 1973.
141. In the winter of 1974, Theodore Kaczynski wrote the family a letter to say that he would be away camping for a while and that they should not worry if they did not hear from him.
J. Comparison of Theodore Kaczynski's known whereabouts with UNABOM Device Dates
142. The UTF has evaluated information provided during the interviews of David and Wanda Kaczynski, and compared Theodore Kaczynski's whereabouts with the dates of the following UNABOM events:
143. UNABOM Device #1 was found at the University of Illinois, Chicago Circle Campus on May 25, 1978. Theodore Kaczynski began a job with Foam Cutting Engineers in Chicago on June 26, 1978. David believed that his brother returned to Chicago from Montana a few days, to no more than 30 days, before starting this job. According to David, when Theodore Kaczynski returned, he took a Greyhound bus from Montana to the main bus terminal in Chicago.
144. UNABOM Device #2 was placed at Northwestern University on May 9, 1979. According to David, Theodore Kaczynski was working in Chicago on May 9, 1979.
145. UNABOM Device #3 was mailed from the Chicago area on November 14, 1979. David recalled that Theodore Kaczynski had gone to work at Prince Castle Restaurant Equipment Division in August or September, 1978, and then quit in the summer of 1979. Theodore Kaczynski stayed at his parent's home for awhile and then borrowed David's car, thereafter travelling to Canada for 6- 8 weeks, to look for land in Saskatchewan. Theodore Kaczynski returned to Chicago and later to Montana that summer or fall. Wanda Kaczynski believed that her son remained in Lombard until the fall of 1979 before returning to Montana. She remembered walking with him to the local commuter train in Lombard.
146. UNABOM Device #4 was mailed from the Chicago area on June 3, 1980 to Percy Wood, then President of United Airlines. UTF investigation has determined that in a letter to David from Theodore Kaczynski, dated August 21, 1981, translated from Spanish to English, Theodore Kaczynski writes, "Last year I was absent for a large part of the summer." The UTF has documented Theodore Kaczynski's stay at the Park Hotel, Helena, Montana, on April 14- 18, 1980, May 12-14, 1980 and August 13-15, 1980. This would have allowed an opportunity for Theodore Kaczynski to travel to Chicago during his absence from Montana.
147. UNABOM Device #5 was placed at the University of Utah on October 8, 1981. Theodore Kaczynski was living in Montana during this time frame. Theodore Kaczynski stayed at the Park Hotel in Helena, Montana on November 9-10, 1981, which was within a month of the placement of Device #5.
148. UNABOM Device #6 was mailed from Provo, Utah on April 23, 1982. Theodore Kaczynski was living in Montana during this time frame and stayed at the Park Hotel in Helena on May 12- 3, 1982, within a month of the mailing of Device #6.
149. There were four UNABOM Devices during 1985, the UNABOM Subject's most active year. UNABOM Device #9 was mailed from Oakland, California on May 8, 1985. UNABOM Device #8 was found at Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley on May 15, 1985, but witnesses reported first observing it several days earlier. UNABOM Device #10 was mailed from Salt Lake City on November 12, 1985. UNABOM Device #11 was placed outside Rentech Computer Rental, Sacramento, California on December 11, 1985.
150. From a review of Theodore Kaczynski's letters mailed to his brother and furnished to the UTF, it was determined that Theodore Kaczynski had planned to visit David at David's cabin in Alpine, Texas in 1985. By letter dated February 10, 1986, he canceled the trip stating, "Well, I can't come to see you after all. I am extremely sorry to inconvenience you with all these changes of plans. All I can say is that these changes of mind are not frivolous and arbitrary - they are due to changes of circumstances. There is more to this than you realize."
151. In a March 8, 1996, ____ Kaczynski said he had gone to either California, Arizona or Utah to look for a job. ___ remembered it was a warm weather state, one of the three states he mentioned.
152. During September or October, 1986, David visited his brother at
"Dave-you can come between Sept. 27 and Oct. 4 inclusive, but not outside those dates."
153. David stated that he did see his brother at this time, but also stated that he has not seen his brother since the 1986 visit to Montana.
154. UNABOM Device #12 was placed at the outside rear of CAAMS Computer Store in Salt Lake City on February 20, 1987. ___ device as a white male, approximately 25-30 years old, 5'10" to 6' in height, 165 pounds, lean, wiry build, with a reddish, rough looking complexion and strawberry blond hair and light mustache.
155. Theodore Kaczynski is described as a white male, 5'9" 150 pounds with a lean, wiry, appearance, and dark colored hair. Two photographs of Theodore Kaczynski are being submitted with this affidavit. Attachment 5 is a photograph purportedly depicting Theodore Kaczynski taken during his years at UCB. This photograph was obtained from a faculty member at UCB. Attachment 6 is a 1991 Montana Drivers License photograph of Theodore Kaczynski.
156. In 1989 David wrote Theodore Kaczynski indicating that he, David, planned to live with his future wife, Linda. Theodore Kaczynski responded with anger. He told David he did not want to communicate with him again. He also told David to write to him only if he had something really important to say, and to do so by placing a red line on the envelope beneath the stamp, signifying the importance of the contents. Theodore Kaczynski said that he intended to destroy any envelopes that did not have a red line.
157. David also sent his brother a letter requesting that he be the best man at David's July, 1990 wedding, but Theodore Kaczynski did not respond.
158. In September, 1990, David sent his brother a letter advising him that their father was very ill. Theodore Kaczynski responded and stated that this had been an appropriate use of the red line. Their father died on October 2, 1990, and David wrote Theodore Kaczynski to advise him of the memorial service. Theodore Kaczynski did not attend the service.
159. In January or February, 1991, Theodore Kaczynski wrote to David asking for his share of the father's estate, which was approximately $60,000. Theodore Kaczynski did not receive this money, but did get $7,000 from his mother under separate circumstances.
160. In the summer of 1991, Theodore Kaczynski wrote David saying he did not want anything further to do with the family.
161. In November, 1994, Theodore Kaczynski wrote David asking for a $1,000
loan, followed by another request for a $2,000 loan. David sent the money
to his brother in the form of cashier's checks.
K. Further Analysis of Theodore Kaczynski's Activities and UNABOM Incidents
163. The UTF has undertaken an extensive investigation of Theodore Kaczynski's
known activities, with the objective of accounting for his
168. Recent investigation has determined that public bus transportation exists which would enable an individual to travel from Lincoln, Montana to San Francisco or Oakland, California, and return. RimRock Trailways buses depart once per day from Lincoln to both Missoula and Great Falls, Montana. From either of those cities, bus service is available to Helena, Montana, or, from Missoula, to Butte, Montana. RimRock Trailways buses depart southbound daily from Helena, Montana, beginning at 9:00 a.m. They travel south through Butte to Idaho Falls, Idaho, where connection is made with Greyhound Lines. From Idaho Falls, Greyhound proceeds to Salt Lake City, Utah, with connections available to the San Francisco Bay Area via Reno, Nevada and Sacramento, California.
169. Such travel from Helena takes an average of 25.5 hours to Sacramento, 28 hours to Oakland and 28.5 hours to San Francisco. Return trips take the same amount of time and can be started several times per day. It is also possible to travel from Missoula, Montana to Butte, Montana on Greyhound Lines (and then on to Idaho Falls) but that takes several hours longer than to starting from Helena.
170. ___ photograph of Theodore Kaczynski as that of a person has had as a passenger between Lincoln and Missoula "three or four times" within the past year.
171. ___ identified a photograph of Theodore Kaczynski as that of a person had as a passenger between Lincoln and Missoula "four or five times" within the past year.
172. ___ identified a photograph of Theodore Kaczynski as a person __ has had as a passenger on the bus route between Idaho Falls, Idaho and Great Falls, Montana (passing through Helena) a number of times since __ began working for RimRock in September, 1994. __ pacifically recalled seeing Kaczynski at the bus driver switch point in Butte "at least three or four times."
173. ___ UTF investigators interviewed ___ stated __ was familiar with Theodore Kaczynski and that ___ stated that Kaczynski "hops on a bus and goes and visits a lot more than anyone thought." __ recalled Kaczynski telling _ these bus trips. __ about two or three years ago, Kaczynski was very excited about taking a trip "back home __ that in the last two to three years, Kaczynski has gone back to the Chicago or Detroit area on a couple of occasions. __ stated Kaczynski went "down" to see his Mexican friend at least once in the past two to three years. __ this Mexican friend's situation really bothered Kaczynski. __ believes Kaczynski- visited this friend in either California or Colorado.
L. Money Received by Theodore Kaczynski from David and Wanda Kaczynski:
174. UTF investigation has identified two bank account __ Montana, maintained by Theodore Kaczynski from 1984 to 1994 and February 21, 1995 through August 23, 1995. A third bank account in __ Montana belonging to Theodore Kaczynski has also been identified __
175. A review of Wanda Kaczynski's canceled checks and David Kaczynski's records reflect the following funds sent to and/or deposited by Theodore Kaczynski, on the following approximate dates. The designation of a question mark indicates the UTF's inability to determine the specific date reflected on the document.
CHECK DATE......... DATE POSTED.....AMOUNT
12/5/85............... 12/28/85............ $600.00
5/15/86............... 5/25/86.............. $600.00
5/10/87............... 5/27/87.............. .$600.00
5/15/88............... 5/21/88.............. .$600.00
5/15/89............... 5/31/91............... $750.00
11/16/89............... 12/4/89............. $10.00
5/18/90............... 5/31/90.............. .$750.00
7/26/91............... 7/30/91.............. .$7,032.81
11/94 (received from David)..............$1,000.00
TOTAL (5/16/85 - 2/1/95)..................$16,802.81
176. As previously stated-herein, UTF has obtained documents pertaining to a deposit on a bank account maintained by Theodore Kaczynski on December 11, 1985.
177. Of significance with respect to the above dates between 5/16/85 - 2/1/95, Theodore Kaczynski received $16,802.81, but his bank records indicate deposits of a lesser amount.
178. Theodore Kaczynski opened the first account __ May 22, 1985, with the $600 check received from Wanda, dated May 16, 1985. The UNABOM subject was in the San Francisco Bay Area sometime between May 8, 1985 and May 15, 1985, UNABOM Device #8 was mailed to Boeing on May 8, 1985 and Device #9 was observed in Room 264 of Cory Hall, UCB, several days prior to the May 15, 1985 detonation.
179. Theodore Kaczynski deposited the $600 check dated December 5, 1985 from his mother on December 28, 1995, and the $25.00 check, dated December 27, 1985, from his mother on January 8, 1986. UNABOM Device #11 was placed at Rentech Computer Rental, Sacramento, California on December 11, 1985, requiring the presence of the UNABOM subject in Sacramento.
180. Suspect received $1,000 from David circa November 14, 1994, approximately one month prior to UNABOM Event #15, mailed to Thomas Mosser from San Francisco, California, on Saturday, December 3, 1994.
181. Suspect received $2,000 from David circa January 19, 1995 and prior to the mailing of UNABOM Device #16 to Gilbert Murray from Oakland on April 20, 1995 and the mailing of the UNABOM manuscript from San Francisco on June 24, 1995.
182. It should be noted that Theodore Kaczynski sent David a letter postmarked November 2, 1994, requesting $1,000.
183. By letter postmarked December 23, 1994, Theodore Kaczynski requested the additional $2,000, stating "I need another $2,000 ... if and when I get over present difficulties sufficiently ... There won't be any further requests for loans ... if another $2,000 won't do it, then I guess nothing will, so I may as well give up."
M. Further Analysis of Characteristics Between the UNABOM Subject
184. UTF investigators have reviewed over 100 letters written by Theodore Kaczynski to his mother, brother and Dr. Goren, wherein Theodore Kaczynski discusses his feelings of anger. Likewise, the UNABOM subject expresses anger and frustration with modern society because of its dependence on modern technology. This anger is reflected in the UNABOM manuscript.
185. In an undated letter to David from Theodore Kaczynski, he wrote:
"As you know, I have no respect for law or morality. Why I never committed any crime? (of course, I'm not talking about something like shooting a grouse out of season now and then. I mean felony type stuff - burglary, arson, murder, etc.) Lack of motive? Hardly. As you know, I have a good deal of anger in me and there are lots of people I'd like to hurt. Risk? In some cases, yes. But there are other cases in which I can figure out ways of doing naughty things so that the risk would be insignificant. I am forced to the humiliating confession that the reason I've never committed any crime is that I have been successfully brainwashed by society. On an intellectual level I have only contempt for authority, but on an animal level I have all too much respect for it. My training has been quite successful in this regard and the strength of my conditioned inhibitions is such that I don't believe I could ever commit a serious crime. Knowing my attitude toward psychological manipulation of the individual by society, you can imagine how humiliating it is for me to admit to myself that I have been successfully manipulated."
N. Additional Findings by the UNABOM Task Force
"Much of his time is spent at home reading and contriving numerous gadgets made up of wood, string, wire, tape, lenses, gears, wheels, etc.; that test out various principals in physics. His table and desk are always a mess of test tubes, chemicals, batteries, ground coal, etc. He will miss greatly, I think, this browsing and puttering in his messy makeshift lab."
187. On March 23, 1996, Wanda T. Kaczynski, Theodore Kaczynski's mother, was interviewed by Special Agents of the FBI concerning her son. Mrs. Kaczynski provided the agents with ninety items which included: (1) further letters written by her son Ted, (2) several essays written by her son, (3) essays that she had written, (4) copies of checks made payable to her son from May, 1985 through July, 1991, and (5) a handmade cylindrical wooden box containing a handwritten letter from Theodore Kaczynski.
188. Among the letters was a handwritten letter to his mother where Theodore Kaczynski asks her to mail a fourth "manuscript" entitled "Three Worthy Artisans", to the magazine editors of Harper's Weekly. Also included in those documents obtained from Wanda Kaczynski was a typed article entitled, "How I Blew Up __ by "Apias Tuberosa, Pseudym [sic] for T.J. Kaczynski, 463 N. Ridge, Lombard, Illinois 60148." Your affiant notes that the UNABOM subject has used several pseudonyms in connection with his devices and mailings.
189. In the __ article, Theodore Kaczynski describes how a high school classmate blew up a mixture of chemicals provided to him by Theodore Kaczynski. He writes in the article:
"When I was in high school I took a course in chemistry. There was only one aspect of the subject which interested me, as any chemist could have seen from a brief inspection of my rather specialized home collection of reagents; (sic) powdered aluminum, powdered magnesium, powdered zinc, sulfur, potassium, nitrate, potassium permanganate...in suitable combinations these things are capable of exploding." "One day in the laboratory, having finished my assigned experiment early, I though I might as well spend the extra time pursuing my favorite line of research. On theoretical grounds, a mixture of red phosphorus and potassium chlorate seemed promising. (I did not know at the time that it is the red phosphorus in the scratching surface of a match-book, together with the potassium chlorate in the match-head, that makes a match light so readily. I later found that the mixture is extremely sensitive to friction and practically impossible to work with. The reader is advised not to play with it."
190. An analysis of-the elements found in the first six UNABOM devices indicates that they contained powdered aluminum, potassium chlorate, and match-heads, which were included the specific references made by Theodore Kaczynski in his essay above.
191. The UTF has obtained copies of letters sent to __ These letters include requests for various types of psychological, scientific, and historical magazines and books.
192. Your affiant has reviewed a letter of April, 1991, signed by Theodore Kaczynski and sent to __ in that letter, Theodore Kaczynski describe __ that he had been "under strong stress" since the "age of 38." He also wrote the reasons for the stress" are personal and I do not intend to discuss them. For the least four or five years I've been under more stress than previously."
193. A Sylvan Learning Center was opened in Helena, Montana in 1994, one of three such centers in the entire state of Montana. Helena, Montana is approximately 60 miles from Theodore Kaczynski's home. The Sylvan Learning Center is a business whose primary focus is increasing the educational skills of high school students, with a particular emphasis on English and Mathematical subjects.
194. In the UNABOM Manuscript (Attachment 2) specific reference is made to the Sylvan Learning Center. This is the only business mentioned specifically, by name, in the UNABOM manuscript.
195. During her March 23, 1996 interview, Wanda Kaczynski advised that she read articles about the "Unabomer" in the newspaper which described the "Unabomer" as a loner who is against technology. She noted that the description fit her son, Ted, and she said, "people like my son Ted are vulnerable to suspicion. He likes to live alone, likes privacy, is an environmentalist, and he deplores the excesses of technology." Although she did not believe that Ted is the "Unabomer," she was upset because his lifestyle would lead the authorities to suspect him, and it would be unfair. She also said, "but if it is him, he must be stopped."
196. She stated that she and her deceased husband had visited Theodore Kaczynski at his Montana residence until the mid-1980's. She recalled Theodore Kaczynski completing a lot of work to his property including the construction of a root cellar. She claimed that the root cellar was visible from the front door of her son's cabin and located across a creek some 100 to 150 feet from the cabin. She described it as an enclosure in the side of a hill, covered with sod, and some type of door covering it.
197. Wanda recalled that she had purchased a portable manual typewriter as a gift for Theodore Kaczynski in 1984 or 1985. She explained that it was either transported or shipped to her son in Montana.Mrs. Kaczynski said that the family had a manual and electric typewriter at their family home in Lombard, Illinois in the late 1970's. She said that Theodore Kaczynski would have access to either of those typewriters.
198. It is noted by your affiant that numerous comparative samples were obtained from typewritten letters attributed to Theodore Kaczynski or members of his family. To date, forensic analysis indicates that those typewritten samples do not match the typewritten documents connected to the Unabom events.
199. In paragraph 185 of the UNABOM Manuscript (Attachment 2), it is stated "...well, you can't eat your cake and have it too." In a letter signed by Theodore Kaczynski, to his mother Wanda Kaczynski, date unknown, Theodore Kaczynski compares "... the increase in the complexity of our social organization that actually make necessary the erosion of privacy and freedom. We will be sacrificing some of the materialistic benefits of technology, but there just isn't any other way. We can't eat our cake and have it too."
200. It is noted by your affiant that the common use English Language phrase is, "You can't have your cake and eat it too!"
201. Handwritten samples of the UNABOM subject have been obtained for possible forensic comparison. The FBI Laboratory has concluded that there are insufficient samples by which a comparison could be made to the handwritten letters of Theodore Kaczynski.
202. A number of stamps have been obtained from devices mailed or placed by the UNABOM subject. A number of stamps have been obtained from the letters mailed and written by Theodore Kaczynski. According to the FBI Laboratory there is no forensic correlation between those samples.
203. Latent fingerprints attributable to devices mailed and/or placed by the UNABOM subject were compared to those found on the letters attributed to Theodore Kaczynski. According to the FBI Laboratory, no forensic correlation exists between those samples.
204. Your affiant is aware that other individuals have conducted analyses of the UNABOM Manuscript __ determined that the Manuscript was written by another individual, not Theodore Kaczynski, who had also been a suspect in the investigation.
205. Numerous other opinions from experts have been provided as to the identity of the UNABOM subject. None of those opinions named Theodore Kaczynski as a possible author.
206. During this investigation the UTF agents have looked at a number of individuals as potential suspects. These investigations resulted either from tips provided by the public, leads given by other law enforcement officials, or analysis of data obtained from several sources. (As an example of the data analysis, the UTF obtain lists of individuals who attended certain schools during specific time periods. The agents then identified those individuals who were at a combination of the schools at the times that devices were either placed or sent there.) However, after further investigation, additional evidence was developed as to these individuals that indicated that the person should no longer be considered a priority suspect. (While we have not included all of the details of those individual investigations in this affidavit, it is available for the Court's review should the Court so desire.)
207. On February 28, 1996, Special Agent Joyce L. Seymour, BATF, caused a check of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Explosives Licensing Section located in Atlanta, Georgia to determine if Theodore John Kaczynski, date of birth May 22, 1942, has been issued a federal license to manufacture explosives. The results of said check indicate that Theodore John Kaczynski, date of birth May 22, 1942, had not been licensed to manufacture explosives as defined in Title 18 United States Code, Chapter 842.
208. On February 28, 1996, Special Agent Joyce L. Seymour caused a check of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms National Firearms Registration and Transfer Records in Washington, D.C. to determine if Theodore John Kaczynski, date of birth May 22, 1942, had any destructive devices registered to him. The results of said check indicate that there were in fact no firearm or destructive devices registered to Theodore John Kaczynski, date of birth May 22, 1942.
209. As outlined above, Theodore John Kaczynski has been able to avoid identification for almost twenty years. In the June 24, 1995 letter to Professor Thomas Tyler of the University of California at Berkeley, the UNABOM subject apologized for sending carbon copies of his manuscript. He advised that he could not photocopy the manuscript for fear of fingerprint detection.
210. In order to assure, to the extent possible, the safety of the public and the agents, surveillance will be conducted on the premises and on Theodore John Kaczynski for a period prior to the execution of the warrant. In the event that Theodore John Kaczynski suspects that he is being surveilled, he may attempt to obtain an explosive device or destroy evidence. Because of the potential for extreme danger in executing a warrant at such a premises, it is requested that the agents be authorized to commence the search as the situation dictates at anytime, day or night.
211. It is expected that the execution may take an unusually long time. The explosive devices that Theodore John Kaczynski has manufactured in the past have been extremely dangerous and easily detonated. It is the opinion of SSA Mohnal that Theodore John Kaczynski has manufactured more than one device at a time. Further, in the April 24, 1995 letter to Warren Hoge of the New York Times, the Unabom subject stated that he had spent a considerable amount of time testing various devices. As a result of all this information, it is believed that Theodore John Kaczynski may have fully operational explosive devices on the premises. The executing agents will first have to assure themselves that Theodore Kaczynski has not set explosive "boobytraps" aimed at destroying evidence and killing agents. The initial search for such devices may take hours and even longer if explosives are found.
212. It is anticipated, that once the premises are secure, experts in various laboratory techniques, who will have been flow in from around the country, will conduct the evidence search and perform tests on various items even before they are moved. It is expected that this process could take more than a day. It is therefore requested that the executing and searching agents be given permission to secure and leave the premises for periods of rest and be able to return to continue the search. During their absence, agents will maintain security of the premises to assure that no unauthorized persons enter. In no event will this extended search take longer than 7 days (168 hours) without additional authorization of the court.
213. Based on all of the information contained in this affidavit, which establishes a continual and consistent pattern of conduct between 1978 and the present date, and based on the expert opinion of Supervisory Special Agent of the FBI's Explosive Unit, who has stated that probable cause exists that all of the below-listed items would be utilized in the manufacture, construction, assembly, packaging, and mailing of the explosive devices, your Affiant believes that probable cause exists that the following items, which are evidence of said violations, and are the fruits and instrumentalities of the foregoing crimes, are currently being stored at the premises of Theodore John Kaczynski, located in Lewis and Clark County, in the State of Montana, more particularly described in the Application and Affidavit for Search Warrant and Attachment A, previously incorporated by reference.
214. Tools and other instruments or items which have been used, can be used, or are intended to be used in the manufacture and/or construction of improvised explosive devices or the components thereof. These items include, but are not limited to, saws, files, metal punches, drill bits, sanding devices, hammers, chisels, drills, vice or similar jawed tools, abrading equipment, soldering and brazing equipment, wire strippers, screwdrivers, staplers, safety wire and other pliers, various hand tools for cutting steel bar stock, grinders, sandpaper, leather working tools, pots or other containers used to melt lead and aluminum, tools and associated materials used in the casting of lead and aluminum, machines and tools which cut metal pipe, tools used for cross-referencing circumference to diameter, rulers and other various measuring devices, abrasive cloths, steel wool or iron wire.
215. The following explosives, chemicals or other substances which have been used, can be used or are intended to be used in the manufacture or construction of improvised explosive devices, or the components thereof: These items include but are not limited to, firearms ammunition, smokeless powder, black powder, aluminum and aluminum powder, gasoline containers, barium nitrate, magnesium, potassium chlorate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, potassium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chlorate, matches, or other pyrotechnic mixtures and constituents.
216. The following items, which have been used, can be used or are intended to be used to house or contain improvised explosive devices and the components thereof: These items include, but are not limited to, cigar boxes, wood, wooden boxes, wooden blocks, scrap wood and wood sources such as boxes, pallets, cabinets and crates, hollowed-out books, the book entitled the "Ice Brothers" by author Sloan Wilson, or portions thereof, notebooks, loose leaf binders, or other plastic containers.
217. The following items and materials which have been used, can be used or are intended to be used as component parts of improvised explosive devices: These items include, but are not limited to, metal tubes/pipes, cans, switches, barometers, springs, batteries, dowels, plugs, screws, pins, nuts and bolts, nails, staples, fishing line, straps, washers and brackets, rubber bands, cord, wire, flashlight bulbs, alligator clips, and lead split shot, tire weights or similar item, any form of aluminum metal or scraps, sheet metal scraps and shims.
218. The following items which have been used, can be used or are intended to be used in the construction or assembly of improvised destructive devices: These items include, but are not limited to, solder, epoxy, glues and other adhesives or caulking materials, varnish, lacquer, paint, wax and wax paper, lead, solid silver bar, metal debris, explosive residue and debris, gloves, plumbing sink traps, tape, gasket material and twine.
219. The following items which have been used, can be used or are intended to be used as exterior packaging materials: These items include, but are not limited to, boxes, envelopes, mailing labels, rubber stamps, rubber stamp kits, postage stamps, wrapping paper, padded envelopes, stenciling sets, ink pens, ink pads, and scales.
221. Any and all documents, photographs, papers, written materials, books, diagrams, schematic drawings, video tapes, computer generated or stored information or other materials which relate to the manufacture, construction and/or assembly of improvised explosive devices or any of the components thereof.
222. Any and all receipts, invoices, purchase orders, sales slips or other documents and materials relating to the purchase or procurement of any and all materials and tools which have been used, can be used, or intended to be used in the design, manufacture and construction of improvised explosive devices; said documents would include, but are not be limited to, those which denote the purchase or obtainment of any or all items previously listed in paragraphs A through H.
223. Any and all documents, photographs, papers, written or printed materials, books, video tapes, computer generated or stored information or other materials and indicia which relate to the names of, "Wu", the initials "R.V." and "FC", "The Ice Brothers" a book written by Sloan Wilson, "The History of Violence in America," a book written by Hugh Graham and Ted Gurr, "Chinese Political Thought in The 20th Century", a book by Chester C. Tan, "The Ancient Engineers", a book by L. Sprague de Camp, "The True Believer" by Eric Hoffer, Ralph C. Kloppenburg, Enoch W. Fischer, or any of the previously identified persons, names, mailing addresses, or bombing incidents which appear in this affidavit. These items will also include any lists of previous or future targeted individuals or victims.
224. Any and all documents or computer generated and stored information, including but not limited to, appointment books, diaries, journals, calendars, telephone toll records, receipts, bank statements, credit card statements, motel receipts, canceled checks, travel itineraries, canceled airline tickets, car rental contracts or other receipts which denote Theodore Kaczynski's travel and whereabouts between 1978 and the present date.
225. Any and all documents, materials, and correspondence relating to Theodore Kaczynski's affiliation or association with educational institutions and universities, airlines, airline fabrication plants, scientific and professional groups or organizations, and computer companies.
226. Any and all literature, documents, materials, books, correspondence, membership lists, written materials, or computer generated and stored lists which relate to the identity of any co- conspirators who may be involved in any of the aforementioned bombing incidents.
227. Any and all literature, documents, materials, books, correspondence, or computer generated and stored information relating to or showing an interest in or affiliation with any movement or group advocating violence, revolution or anarchy.
228. Any and all documents and other indicia of any kind showing ownership or control of the premises described in Attachment A or under the control of Theodore Kaczynski, including but not limited to, rental agreements, contracts of sale, deeds, leases, utility and telephone bills, keys.
229. Any and all documents and other indicia of any kind showing ownership or control of storage facilities, safe deposit boxes, other commercial or rental properties, rented or owned by Theodore Kaczynski, which could be used for the storage of the above- mentioned items, including but limited to rental agreements, leases, contracts, deeds, keys and access devices.
230. Based upon the facts presented herewith, your affiant has reason to believe that there is probable cause to search the premises belonging to, owned by, and/or under the control of, Theodore John Kaczynski, and therefore request that a warrant be issued authorizing a search for the aforementioned items of evidence related to the violations mentioned herein.
SWORN AND SUBSCRIBED TO BEFORE ME THIS 3RD DAY OF APRIL, 1996
First word: Mention of the manuscript came in a letter from the bomber
Origins: The Unabomber's letters and manuscripts were mailed
A college try: Investigators hoped the manifesto's publication would
jar the memories of people who knew him when he was younger. Some 50
Combing for clues: What academics across the country had to say about
the manifesto and its author.
"It's extraordinarily well-written," said David Lindberg, a
"You don't have to go through a university program to encounter these ideas at all," said David Hollinger, a history professor at UC Berkeley. "Any individual who reads radical journals or hangs out in the science section of bookstores could pick them up."
Keith Benson, a professor of medical history and ethics at the University of Washington, said the manuscript was thoughtful and well-organized, "certainly not the rantings of a crazy man."
"He is writing about the alienation of modern society and how the
"He gets a tremendous sense of pride by outsmarting everyone,"
A Penthouse view: Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione offered
Publication: On Sept. 19, 1995, just short of a three-month deadline
imposed by the Unabomber, the manifesto appeared in an eight-page
Omission: On Sept. 22, 1995, The Washington Post published 72 words that
had been inadvertently dropped from the published version of the manifesto.
A typist had accidently skipped the words all of paragraph 116
and part of
A break in the case: Federal agents were tipped off to Theodore Kaczynski
by his younger brother, David. While helping his mother
The debate: What editors across the country had to say about its
"I worry about the precedent it sets. I worry about turning over
"Once you take a first step toward letting terrorists hold the media
"The man is not really trustworthy in his guarantees."
Impressions: "We're eating out of his hand," Michael Rustigan,
Researched in Davis? In 1996, librarians at the University of California,
Davis, handed over to the FBI a copy of "The True
Hoffer, a San Francisco longshoreman-turned-philosopher and essayist
who died in 1983, was a cultural icon of Bay Area intellectuals when Kaczynski
was teaching at Berkeley in the late 1960s. Hoffer's book
The original: The typed original of the manifesto was reportedly found
during the search of the former math professor's Montana cabin and